“patriotic.” What the powers that be” tell them, they believe implicitly, and will fight for. They make good slaves.- faithful, honest, gullible (within limits). John Buchan, in “Midwinter,” makes his character “Midwinter” to say, “I am nothing – a will-o-the-wisp at your service – a clod of vivified dust whom its progenitors christened ‘Amos Midwinter.’ I have no possession but my name, and no calling but that of philosopher. Naked I came from the Earth, and naked I will return to it.” ______ 11 – It has been more than two years since I read Bishop Wm. Montgomery Brown’s books on Socialism, or rather Communism, and I see that since that time my ideas and ideals have undergone a gradual and great change. Now, more than ever, do I believe in morals, ethics – the religion of humanity. But the supernatural religion of old is going swiftly from my mind and heart. I believe a continuation of my life through the seed may occur – so I may live again; but the old order has otherwise almost completely changed for me. Following Bishop Brown’s suggestion, when I sing a hymn, I think of the savior as being suffering humanity, who will be raised again – who will ultimately triumph. Thus, I can as truly – no more truly – worship than I ever did before, for poor abused, suffering, downtrodden man is my beloved savior. And when I say grace at table, my heart thanks are for that same humanity who gave me my food, clothing, home, etc. And when I pray – the same is true. I know my thoughts – my mind, my desires carry power to bring about what I pray for. If I pray rightly, but otherwise, God does not answer it – Humanity answers it – and I answer it, myself – or my friend – or strangers – Does this knowledge leave me sad? No - for I have a passion for knowing the truth. Page 104 -- I worship Intelligence, Truth, Science, Beauty, Honesty, Love. These are my Gods. So also are Nature – the Sun, the fruitful Earth, Air, Water – all that makes it possible for us to live, love, think, and be, in the best sense of the word.
Have been reading over what I have written. On preceeding page (103) I see I have said that “our family make good slaves.” This is true, and not true. Most of them are trite, and wholly conventional in their thinking – but they are independent in keeping free from circumstances that will curtail their freedom or self-respect. They had rather do with little and be independent than have much and lose their freedom.
Donald has this innate independence, also.
I can scarcely realize yet that I am married. True, I sign my name, almost mechanically, now, “Lovina S. Robson,” but I still feel a sense of strangeness about it all.

Feb 13 – I sent to the County Library at Lander for some books on public speaking. Having had several years experience in public speaking, I felt that a study of the subject would help me. The books are: “Modern Eloquence – Public Speaking, Debates,” (It is a part of a set.) Vol. 15. The other book is “Training for Power and Leadership” by Kleiser.
In “Modern Eloquence”, vol. 15 I find: “Know your subject; know your audience; know yourself, and then go to it. Both Study and Experience necessary. 1. Planning a speech, study up on subject, thoroughly, and understand it. 2. Preparation of Speech. Don’t choose too large a subject. Have a preliminary reverie on the subject of speech. Imagine yourself giving it.

(Page 105 top margin – President Butler’s speech, “Five Evidences of Education” 1. Correct use of mother tongue; 2 Refined & Gentle Manners; 3 Power of habit and reflection; 5 Power to do – Efficiency.

Learn your subject and then use only best material in it. Write it down – rearrange – cut down. Make notes clear and brief as possible.
3. Structure of Speech. Gather yourself together after you have risen. Take in whole audience with eye. Project your personality among them as far as possible. They wish to feel you are master of the situation and a leader whom they can gladly follow. Look the part. Do not apologize. Be modest of course. Get on good terms with them at once. Consciously & definitely like them. They want you to do well. Express pleasure at this opportunity. Or catch up phrase of previous speaker – or tell a story. (Don’t say you are reminded of it, just tell it.)
4. Structure of Speech. Presentation and arrangement of main theme. Your audience is now in state of expecting. Chief problem is one of selection and analysis. List main points.
5. Structure of Speech. Conclusion. (Sometimes hard to close) Strive to make it plain that you have done what you set out to do. Sometimes one can recapitulate for clarity.
6. Development of Speech. After material gathered, write speech. Only an old hand trained to all the tricks can do without notes or writing out speech. Sometimes necessary to change speech – when you have “felt” your audience. Know your subject and you can do this.
7. Composition and Diction. Never talk down to your audience – Give your best, they wish to be proud of you. Watch your English (always- not only in speech making). Look up words in dictionary.
8. Delivery of Speech. How deliver it? Sometimes reading is necessary, in a special message, as a


politician giving a statement of his stand or a scientist producing the results of his research. But usually do not read. Power of eye is lost in reading.
9. Voice & Gesture. Speak in a natural voice allowing for size of audience. Beecher’s quietness stilled his tumultuous audience at Liverpool. Let him allow his countenance to express emotion… throw whole self into speaking spirit…

Page 106 -- Platform appearance! 1. Look the Part, then act it. Have something to say, say it, and sit down. 2. Keep your chest up. 3 Your waistline in. 4. Your neck erect. Walking the platform; usually not much walking needed – except possibly before large audience. Go from one side to other in V shape. Step backwards to back of stage then forward to other side. Let your hands hand, usually – it takes nerve to do this, and creates a good impression on audience. Never, or seldom, behind back. Sometimes (short time) in coat pocket with thumbs outside.
Gestures. In all gestures used to emphasize a thought, the body, head, and hand should take the same general direction. Get the elbow free from the body. See that there is a distinct stroke, a movement up and down at the wrist. Make your emphatic gestures over your forward foot. Look at various parts of the audience so they will feel you are looking at them.
Kind of Gestures. Smoke rolling – hand rolls upward. Water tumbling – downward roll gesture.
Emphatic speech requires emphatic gestures. But don’t use up all your gestures at first and have none for later. Save emphatic gestures for emphatic speech.
Facial expression. There should be sane conservative changes in the expression on a speaker’s face according to emotional demands of situation. First expression in speech is friendliness. Next, earnestness. Don’t wiggle & twist – don’t stand woodenly. Gestures & bodily movement should fit and be of quality and intensity of his emotions & speech. Different gestures with different audiences. Laboring man & club women – or business man require different gestures.
Be careful in selection of your tailor. Have clothes fit well.
Hygiene of Voice. Know your voice limits and don’t go beyond them. Don’t pitch voice too high. Spray out nose & throat every day. Summing up Speaking Rules.

Page 107 –
Be Prepared. Speak distinctly – Look your audience in the eye. Favor your deep tones. Speak deliberately, cultivate earnestness.

Be logical

Don’ts for Speakers
Be afraid of your voice; forget your audience can think; be ashamed of your own opinion; cover too much ground; forget to practice.

First Aid to Speakers: Know your subject; Be prepared, and don’t rely on inspiration; originality comes from meditation; Have a definite purpose; avoid irrelevancy; Believe & feel what you say; be sincere, earnest, and enthusiastic; don’t hurry into your subject; wait for attention; begin in a conversational tone, but loud enough to be heard; don’t force gestures; cultivate the straight forward, open eye; don’t walk about while speaking; don’t be didactic; good diction is a passport recognized by everyone; let your grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation be the best; Cultivate a general manner; pauses are of great oratorical value; write much & often; read aloud, and regularly; the best way to learn to speak is to speak.

Effective Radio Speaking. Special technique needed.
I. Rate. About 165 words per minute average.
For maximum effectiveness the radio speaker should inject into his delivery marked rate variations. Some parts very slow – some skipped over rapidly
II. Pitch. The radio speaker should inject into his delivery marked pitch variations. III. For maximum effectiveness, the radio speaker should get fairly close to the microphone and talk quietly. The radio speaker should inject into his delivery marked volume variations (variety stimuli)

The Radio Speaker should:
Enunciate distinctly but not pedantically;
Seek to visualize an audience as he speaks ( a small group in front of him)
Not speak too long. 10 minutes.
Confine himself to central idea.
Not have too much humor – quiet kind.

Page 108 -- Vocabulary: Do not use big words. Do not use any more consonants than is necessary. The word “stressed” for example, hisses, and carries wrong sounds over air. Try to find other words to fit – as “emphasized”.
Keep sentences rather short – informal of structure.

Suggestions on Debating. Take a vote before the debate, through the audience and after. Also use judges. The vote before determines how many were


convinced by the debate, what there ideas were before the debate.
The essence of good argumentative speech is thought conveyed through emotion. A speech that bores the audience is a failure. Appeal to their emotions, if you would be heard. But the spell-binder who arouses emotions, and then presents no proof of his contentions can make no lasting impression. Study your audience. Study your subject. Those things necessary in preparation for debate: We must find material, read it, and remember what we have read. Use notebook or cards. Study material to find out what vital points or issues are at stake. We may agree with our opponent on many of the related ideas, but we must find out the point of departure – the vital point, and work it up. First principle is unity. The speech must keep to the main road and the clear road. Only evidence & argument which contribute to our purpose may be employed. Last, we must sum up, drive home our arguments – close the case.
The Introduction: two things must be done. The audience must first be willing to believe and then be able to understand the arguments used. To make the audience understand, we must have a background for the question. Seise the points of dispute, and give them their bearings. Body of Argument: Must give reliable evidence, sensible reasoning, and effective uniting of them into a strong organization that will impress the audience. Page 109 -- Place strongest argument in the most advantageous position. Throughout the discourse we must pause to destroy whatever tends to interfere with the acceptance of our proposal.
Summary & final appeal. The summary should be more than a summing up. It should be a rapid, strong uniting clear picture of the case. Plan this carefully. (An evangelist, preaching a fiery warning about the uncertainty of the hour of death ended abruptly with “Are you ready?”) he drove home the argument with an emotional appeal. What reaches the heart of an audience? First, find out what they are proud of. A group of people bitterly opposed to our ideas, will listen if we plead for fairness, if it is too proud to be unfair. Pride of country, of race, of religion, of party, of learning all are foundations for appeal. What is the audience afraid of? A plea for stronger fire dept., better police protection, a suitable army & navy may appeal to a common danger. Threatened hellfire, the crooked made straight. Parents are aroused by the menace of vice. Loss of honor, championship, money, prestige, love, are objects of fear. A plan for safety therefore may be based on a strong emotional appeal. What does the audience love and hate? Let the audience learn that what they love is in danger, or what they love will be benefited, enemies, deserters, imposter, wrongs,

forces of evil are common foes. The reform organization collapses when the cause is won, because there is no enemy. Personality of the debater. He must be a person in contact with life, must know the ways of people. The response of gatherings at moving pictures, operas, the drama, & any group any where will give him material for study. Page 110 – He must learn to criticize himself, and seek advice from those who can advise him.
Conducting a formal debate: 1. Decide on the proposition – a clear issue – so there will be no misunderstanding about it. 2. Decide on method of conducting contest. How many on each side – 1 – 2 or 3.
Divide time equally. The debate may be so conducted that each speaker speaks only once, or twice, as decided upon. Frequently, when only main speakers are given, the affirmative is permitted to use a small portion of its time at the end, this being the only rebuttal speech in the debate. Sometimes on debater from each side delivers a rebuttal speech. In such case, the affirmative speaks last. An audience may be asked to decide which side showed superior skill, or which side – made the more favorable general impression. In still another method, an audience may vote on the merits of the question – that is, may vote on one side or the other, regardless of the skill of the debaters. The last shows the opinion and is really not a decision on the particular debate. When in a debate an entire speech is allotted for refutation we examine the opponents case to discover whether the evidence is false or insufficient, whether the processes of argument are logical, and whether the conclusions are justified. Not only must a speaker stick to his own points, but he must realize that his speech is only a part of the case, and he must therefore, at least in summary review all the arguments thus far presented by his side.

Book: “Training for Power & Leadership,” by Kleiser. Use deep tones of your voice. Open mouth well & direct the tone of voice to back of upper teeth. Cultivate deliberateness in speech. Speak slowly, and pause frequently. You will give the impression of weighing your words.
Cultivate a correct pronunciation.
Cultivate the art of pausing. This pause, judiciously used, adds greatly to effectiveness of speech.
Cultivate frankness of speech. Don’t attempt to change thought in middle of sentence. Know we admire what you are going to say.
Cultivate the fine qualities of courtesy, tact, cheerfulness, and flexibility. Be sincere in desire to speak truth.
Cultivate tolerance of disposition. When you discuss a question, do so with fairness, discretion and common sense. Make allowance for defeats & short


comings of others. Try to see from the other man’s viewpoint, also. Cultivate special & general knowledge, know your business or subject, but also know general subjects.
Cultivate readiness & adaptability in speaking. Confer with well informed men. Read only the best books & magazines. Take the first occasion to use newly acquired information. Clarify your thought by giving them expression
8. Cultivate the correct use of words. Read aloud daily.
9. Cultivate purity of speech. Avoid slant, etc.
10. Cultivate pleasantness in speech. Restrain the tendency to say “smart” things. Avoid meaningless expressions, such as, Of course, I see, Certainly, to be sure, don’t you know, you see, listen, and so, however, I say, etc.
11. Cultivate adaptability in your conversation/speech.
12. Cultivate appropriate silence. Study the art of silence. Do not appear over-reserved nor talkative. Never overstate your case. Show a spirit of sincerity and generosity in all you say.
Speak distinctly

Exercises for lips tongue, articulation. Use each line with vowels long, then use them short.

Page 112
Exercise for developing clearness of tone
Ha-he-hi-ho-hu Ba-be-bi-bo-bu

Explode the voice clearly & sharply on each element, softly at first, and later increasing in intensity.
Cultivate deliberateness of thought habits. Repeat the long vowels, a,e,i,o,u in rising inflections endeavoring to project each sound to a distant object.
Repeat in falling inflections. Give voice fullest freedom without undue loudness, use principally low pitches.

Inhale deeply, and sing the sound of O in a round full, deep tone. Try to increase the chest resonance.
Inhale deeply, compress the air against the closed lips, and then burst them suddenly open on the word “bell.” Sustain the sound of “l” as long as possible, allowing the tone to die away gradually. Repeat 10 times.
Inhale deeply, and sing the sounds of la-le-li-lo-lou first separately, then joining them smoothly together. Repeat in various keys, and in speaking tone.

Exercise for developing volume of tone (no undue loudness)

Use long vowels throughout.

Practice saying certain phrases
Phrase such as, Good morning, thank you, how do you do, pardon me, I am glad to see you, you are looking well, do you think so, I am delighted, you agree with me, I am sure of it, this is a surprise, can I do anything for you?, good afternoon, goodbye – etc. Vary emphasis, tone, feeling.

Feb. 29 – Page 113 – Books I have read: “The Travel Diary of a Philosopher,” by Count Keyserling in two volumes; “The Great Offensive” by Hindus; “O Pioneers,” by Willa Sibert Cather, and “The Meaning of Liberal Education,” by Everett Dean Martin.
In “The Meaning of Liberal Education” (Introduction) the author says: The (American) people we have certain traits which may be praiseworthy in themselves, but are distinctly hostile to the work of education. I will enumerate them, and then briefly indicate their element of hostility. They are, first, our genius for organization; second, our well known utilitarianism; and third, our cleverness in finding shortcuts to the ends we seek; fourth, our tendency to make propaganda…. Organization, which is an instrument, tends to become an end in itself. This is the fate of most organized causes… The organized takes precedence over those who possess interest which it is his task to serve… the system supplants education… It is very difficult for the man of the system to think of education itself, he is too much preoccupied with gradations, requirements, discipline, reports… He thinks in terms of buildings, equipment, submission to authority, conformity to


herd opinion, service to the state. All of these things are necessary but it is obvious that they do not constitute an education… There can be no quality production of things of the spirit.
Another national trait … is utilitarianism… “Yankee shrewdness”… Except in politics & religion we are a sensible people… Practical,… But, there are values which can not be measured in terms of money or personal advantage, or of time lost or found, or of industrial efficiency. Health for instance, is good not merely because the healthy man can do more work; it is good for its own sake. Yet people are advised to guard their health for strictly economic reasons… I have know people to take a like utilitarian view of human relationships, Page 114 -- making friends for the sake of commercial & social advancement, furnishing their houses, selecting their motorcars and even their clothes with the view of keeping up their credit at the bank… belongs to certain clubs – even joins certain churches… People motivated by a narrow utilitarianism doesn’t transform them, they tend to transform it after their own likeness… (The author quotes Whitehead in “Science in the Modern World”.. The leading intellects lack balance – wisdom is the fruit of a balance development. It is this balanced growth of individuality which it should be the aim of education to secure.”
Another & more serious danger is our passion for shortcuts.
p. 40 “The aim of both (modern environmentalists and medieval scholasticism) is to produce an individual who will react under all circumstances according to a pre-arranged pattern.” P. 42-43 – The ancients thought of education as the attainment of virtues, wisdom, courage, temperance, justice. It is the pursuit of that knowledge which gives self-mastery. It is an interest which is never exhausted, but grows always broader and richer. It consists not in learning tricks, but in developing ourselves. It is a victory won in some secret chamber of the mind which gradually transforms the whole personality and reveals itself as an indefinable quality in every word and act. It is a spiritual awakening, and if this awakening does not come, a person is not educated, however much he knows….. Education is the antithesis of vulgarity… Directly and immediately it is useless. It is a kind of living which is of value for its own sake, a personal achievement which possesses intrinsic worth. It is not for anything. Education – the development of people, is not a means, it is itself the true end of civilization.
Chapter 3 – Liberal Education vs Propaganda… Whoever is concerned about his education should be on his guard against propaganda --- Much of the “news” is “treated” for interests which may or may not be disclosed. Page 115 --

There are five devices commonly in use among propagandists which may defeat the effort for a liberal education. They are fixation of ideas by repetition, the trick of over-simplification, insinuation by appeal to prejudice, distortion of fact, and coercion… The habit of repetition develops a credulous and incurious mind… Education is not the substitution of new creeds for old… As long as students are indoctrinated, naturally every group will wish its own propaganda taught.
(A mention of coercion) It has often been said that the martyrs of today are the persecutors of tomorrow… (Likewise the teaching of modern literature, there is so much expurgation, censorship, evasion that most of the students get the impression that literature is produced by Sunday school teachers for the edification of very nice people.) (p. 69) There is a tendency among very modern educators to reduce book learning to a minimum. It is said that book knowledge is only here-say, second-hand information. The student does not make a fact his own so long as he must take someone’s word for it. I am of the opinion however that anyone who can learn from life can also learn from books without spoiling his mind. (p. 77) If our people really desire education they can have it. If I am dissatisfied with my ignorance, I may seek knowledge at any time, and no one else, in or out of college, can ever gain wisdom for me.
The author quotes John Stuart Mill, his description of a scientist is also a description of a liberally educated mind. “To question all things; never to turn away from any difficulty; to accept no doctrine either from ourselves or from other people without a rigid scouting by negative criticism; letting no fallacy, or incoherence or confusion of thought step by unperceived, above all, to insist upon having the meaning of a word clearly understood before using it, and the meaning of a proposition before assenting to it; - these are the lessons we learn from “workers in science.” With all this vigorous management of the negative element they inspire no skepticism about the reality of truth, or indifference to its pursuit. The noblest enthusiasm, both for the search after truth and for applying it to its highest uses, pervades those writers.”… One does not “get” an education anywhere. One becomes an educated person by virtue of patient study, quiet mediation, intellectual courage, and a life devoted to the discovery of service and truth.
Ch. 5 – Educational Value of Doubt. ( I should like to copy this chapter down verbatim, but of course I cannot do so.) Page 116 – To continue. Professor Dewey somewhere speaks of education as freeing the mind of “bunk”. I never saw a completely “debunked” individual. Strive as we may to eradicate


it, there is always in our thinking an amount of error, of wish-fancy accepted as objective fact, of exaggeration, special pleading, self-justification… Men make a virtue of their faith when they are the victims of it… It is easier to believe than to doubt… Crowd men have not sense of humor. It is very difficult to educate solemn and opinionated people… Whoever leaves an institution of learning with the same general outlook on life that he had when he first came might better have employed his time otherwise. He is not a student; he is a church-member… Not all skepticism has educational value. There is a kind of doubting which is merely the negative response of the unteachable, the suspiciousness of the willfully ignorant, the refusal of the incurious to examine disturbing & challenging evidence. Many people, after they have accepted one idea, tame it, and keep it as a sort of watchdog to frighten all other ideas away…. Philosophic doubt is not the pitiable condition of the soul that timid spirits imagine. It is not pessimism, nor cynicism, but a healthy and cheerful habit. It gives peace of mind. Men who stop pretending can sleep o’nights. There is a certain skepticism which is in no sense the spirit that denies. It is a frank recognition of things as they come. It is a test of a man’s honesty … Certainly, cultivated people do not exhibit the same degree of cock-sureness as do the ignorant.

Feb. 28 – I now take up another book and will return later to “The Meaning of a Liberal Education.” This book is “Strategy in Handling People,” by John J. B. Morgan, Ph.D. (Associate Professor of Psychology at Northwestern University.)
(Lovina spends from mid-page 116 to mid-page 127 outlining this one book without making personal comment. Her notes are not at this time transcribed.)
A good book – I shall never forget it – it was worth several days of my spare time in copying its main points.

Mar. 16 – I shall not take many notes on Martin’s, “Meaning of a Liberal Education,” as I have spent to much time on the above book outline to have much left for this one. It, “The Meaning of a Liberal Education,” is very good, however.
In his chapter on “Science and Superstition” Huxley – the author - (p. 255) says, “Yet in fact religious belief is terribly precarious, partly because it is arbitrary so that in the next tribe or in the next century it will wear quite a different form; partly because, when genuine, it is spontaneous, and continually remodeled, like poetry, in the heart that gives it birth. A man of the world soon learns to

discredit established religions on account of their variety and absurdity, although he may good naturedly continue to conform to his own.”

March 23 – Have just finished this book, and I want to read it again, sometime, and take notes on it. It is well worth reading again. Haven’t read much of Count Keyserling’s “Travel Diary of a Philosopher.” I may have them renewed or get them later.

Apr.24 – Page 128 – I did not finish “The Great Offensive,” by Hindu. Have been too busy with other things, and had it for only two weeks. Mean to send next fall and get it again.

May 12 – Donald went out to camp on May 2 or 3. Son went to cook in lambing camp for the Merriam Estate on May 4 – his birthday.
Am reading Lockhart’s, “British Agent” – just a story of Russia – old and new.
Am taking the “Ladies Home Journal” now and there are some very good articles in it from time to time.
I finished reading “The Meaning of a Liberal Education,” but as time on it was limited, I didn’t take any more notes.
A little storm is on just now – one of the few we have had in the past 10 months. We are needing it badly for feed. Donald says there is not much water on their Sioux Creek range. Had hoped to go up there tomorrow (Sunday) but think now the storm will prevent.

May 28 – New Car Chevrolet pickup. Motor number, K4310553; Manufacturer’s Serial Number, 5DB05-26915; Car Key number 4323. Got the car on May 22nd.
I became pastor here in 1925. In 1928, I divorced my husband. I will not go into the reasons – let bye gones be by gones. I had remained divorced – single from more than four years, when, on Dec. 25th I was alone in the house and heard a knock on the post office (I think) door. Going to the door, I opened it, and there stood one Donald Robson – whom I had known for many years, though not well, since he had worked for my husband in 1908-09. He asked for Ramage’s mail, and when I gave it to him, said he intended to come over some time and renew acquaintance. I said, “I shall be glad to see you.” Then he said, “Are you coming over to Shoshoni to the Installation on the 29th?” I said, “Yes, I think so. I have been appointed chaplain.” So he said, “Well, I’ll see you over there, then.”
Page 129 – On the 29th (or was it the 28th?) I went to Installation. It is one of the “big” nights in Shoshoni – a joint installation of Masons and Eastern


Stars. After the ceremonies of installation, lunch was served at the card tables in the lodge room, and Donald came and sat with me at the table.
On Jan 5 I received a note from him, which read: - Dear Mrs. Johnson: - May I come over Sunday Evening? Please let me know if this will be alright, and if I may, what time to come. Nice Chinook wind blowing here today. Sincerely yours, Donald M. Robson.
I answered and told him to come for supper if he could. He came, and we sat visiting for two or three hours, and then he left. His next letter was Jan 12, and informed me that – Dear Lovina – He was taking the privilege of calling me that – and he would be over Sunday Evening at 7 pm., Etc. He did not come as a storm came up. Later, I received a letter explaining why, and he hoped Henry (Son) was getting better (from measles).

June 13—Have been reading a number of books lately – quite a variety – novels – and some good books. Among the latter is one by Paul de Kruif, “Men Against Death.” A short outline follows. Chapter 1 – Simmelweis – Saver of Mothers – Against Childbed Fever. He was a German, or rather Hungarian doctor. Born 1837 – Ch. 2 Banting, “Who found Insulin. Insulin is for diabetes. (Banting was Canadian) Ch. 3 Minot – Against Death vs Pernicious anemia. Ch. 4 Spencer – In the Happy Valley. Bitter Root valley. , Mont. Tick Fever. Ch. 5 – Evans (Alice) – Death in Milk (Undulant Fever)31 Ch. 6 McCoy – Should General’s Die in Bed? Parrot Fever. 6. Sch___dinn – The Pale Horror. Syphilis. 8 Bordet – Prophet of Doom.

Oct. 5 -- It has been quite a while since I wrote in here. So many thing have been happening. One wonders which of them all will prove, in the ultimate, to have been important, and which unimportant. This summer has been one of great drouth in a large area of the farming districts of the United States. This

31 Undulant Fever - Undulant fever: An infectious disease due to the bacteria Brucella that characteristically causes rising and falling fevers, sweats, malaise, weakness, anorexia, headache, myalgia (muscle pain) and back pain.
The disease is called undulant fever because the fever is typically undulant, rising and falling like a wave. It is also called brucellosis after its bacterial cause.
The disease is transmitted through contaminated and untreated milk and milk products and by direct contact with infected animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, buffaloes, wild ruminants and, very recently, seals), and animal carcasses. Transmission can be through abrasions of the skin from handling infected animals. In the US, infection occurs more frequently by ingesting contaminated milk and dairy products. Groups at elevated risk include abattoir (slaughterhouse) workers, meat inspectors, animal handlers, veterinarians, and laboratory workers.

state has also been stricken. Last winter was a wonderful winter, but no moisture. Page 130 – In fact, we have not had a normal amount of moisture (even in this usually arid country) for two or three years). Then this summer was dry. Very little feed grass grew on the range, and very few crops were raised except farms under irrigation projects. This fall, we are faced with no winter feed on the range, very little that can be bought, and very little marked for sheep anyhow.
The government is buying old ewes by the thousands (perhaps millions) and cattle also – the old or poor ones who may not live through winter anyhow, and is taking some of them to feed, and are killing some of them out on the range. The government pays $2.00 per head for old ewes, ( I do not know how much for cattle). Nearly everyone in the stock business is selling some in this way. My husband and his partner are selling about 200 old ewes. (Later, They are not going to sell them to the government. The government ties them up too much in buying old ewes.) (Later yet: They were paid for the old ewes, after all.) If there any fat ones in the bunch we are going to can some of the meat. The slaughter of stock in this way seems terrible, to me. And yet, it seems necessary, that the remainder may have feed to live!
Jimmie (Scott) and Mrs. Elsie Thoren were married on July 11 (I think it was that date).

Oct. 6 – I did not finish yesterday. Books lately, have included “The Last Home of Mystery,” by Powell; a set of books of the O Henry Memorial Award Prizes for several years (all the stories are good). Two play books – One by Ibsen and one by Wilde; “Prohibiting Poverty,” by Martin; also the current stories in the Saturday Evening Post; “The Paradine Case,” by Robt. Hichens; “Told by an Idiot,” (by I forget whom) and quite a number of others. Yet, in the whole, I haven’t been reading much, not much of the “high brow” kind which I usually read, anyhow. Have sent for some more books from the Casper Library. I get them in Glenn’s name (Mrs. W. I. Lewis), as I have not card out in that library. Our county library at Lander never has any of the books that I want.
(Personal affairs) Don and Jimmie shipped a couple of carloads of lambs yesterday – about 500, I believe, and they average almost 60 lbs. They have about 150 smaller ones left which they want to sell too.
Our cow, Velvet, had a calf in June, 1933 – a heifer which we named Cricket. Velvet has another (a bull) calf now – and I am afraid – young as Cricket is – that she, too is going to have a calf next spring.


So I am getting quite a herd of cows – three now – and probably two more.

Page 131 – At the top of the page is written 1934 but the first date on the page is illegible.

_____ 16 – I just paid John Philp, Clifford Davis, and Lealand Knapp .75¢ for each cow they skinned for me. They brought up the skins, and salted them, awaiting the time (a few days hence) when I shall receive the tanning supplies. Am going to try to tan them. They will make nice robes, coats, etc.
The government killed the cattle yesterday, and left them in the CB & T railroad pens. They don’t save the hides of cows, as they do of sheep.
Have been sick. Liver, perhaps. Am better now. We have had several rains, recently, more or less moistening, and some of the feed has been growing a little lately. this late in the year, many of the leaves are off the trees, now – but grass is still green and some other shrubbery. The nights are becoming chilly, but it is not really freezing much, if any, yet.
I rather dread winter, but heigho! Why worry? We’ll “hope for the best, prepare for the worst, and take what God sends.”
So many interesting things happen around here to myself and others. If I only dared write about them. If I only dared give a resume of each of the many interesting characters around here. Guess I will, in my spare time. I will start with myself – work out through my family to my neighbors – an be careful what I say.
Myself Physically, I am 5 ft. 4 1/3 inches tall (in stocking feet). Weight, just now, 132 pounds. Age, 43 years – well, almost 44 years (Born Dec 20, 1890). Medium blue-grey eyes (mostly blue), medium complection and medium brown hair (it is darkening now). Shoe 6 ½ D. bust 36 inches. On the whole, I believe I can safely say I have fairly good features – (It’s hard to tell your own character, isn’t it?). I am naturally honest, naturally frank, and it is a hardship on me to have to get “hard boiled” with people – My education has been chiefly of my own getting, and is widespread in its nature. Page 132 -- I believe I am unusually broadminded as a result of this. I pride myself upon never having had illegal sexual relations with any man in my life. Occasionally I smoke a cigarette with my friends. (wicked behavior?) Am not above saying an occasional “damn”. Am a fair housekeeper – (not really good, though my house is homelike) like music, beauty, old clothes (good clothes too) and comfort. Am flexible of nature, yet, I think, steady of purpose – “I am willing to change my mind.” Am level headed, and, I believe, have good sound

judgment. Enough of me, it is a boring subject. (Later – this embarrasses me now. Did I have to write this?)
Donald Mac Gregor Robson. Born in Scotland on Apr. 15, 1887 ( I think). Is about 5 ft. 6 or 7 inches. Blond complection & hair, hazel eyes – weight about 145 lbs. He is well built except for legs somewhat bowed – is muscular in appearance, a good conciencious worker. Can always be depended on to do what he sets out to do. Is honest, and self-respecting.. Temper pretty well under control. Naturally tender and gentle, he occasionally tries to cover it up with a gruff exterior. Has some talent for drawing – his trade was stone cutter – can or could a few years ago – play an accordion. Likes reading – a good class of fiction, mostly. Is practical in his work, but not good at figures. Is honorable in his behavior and intentions. Shoes 7 ½.
Son – Henry Edward Johnson, Jr. (or Jensen). Born May 4, 1909. Height 5 ft. 10 ½ inches; weight about 140 or 145 lbs. Eyes about the color of mine; hair a little darker; compaction, rather dark. Son is educated, had had about 3 years of college. Majored in English – Journalism – Political Science – & Political Economy. His views are essentially those of an educated man of today. He is inclined to improvidence – not looking ahead, nor planning for anything except pleasure. Character not wholly formed yet, despite his 25 years. (9/14/1952 – Am glad to say he is ok – has “grown up” into a very good sort of person.)
Page 133 -- Dad – Charles Columbus Swaim. Born Feb. 4 – 1862. He is almost 73 now, and stooped somewhat, but he used to be 5 ft. 10 ½ inches tall. Weight probably 140 – 145 lbs or less. Slender build & but strong & wirey in younger days. Legs somewhat bowed. Hair blond; compaction blond; eyes dark blue. Small head, 6 7/8 hat, high forehead. Very quick thinker – quick of temper but not violent. Is honest of intention – conciencious in his work, dependable in character. He is inclined to be “bull-headed,” too and set in his ways. Was brilliant as a student when a boy & finished common school and attended a term or two of normal. Was considered well educated for his day when young.
Glenn – Beatrice Glenn Swaim Lewis. Born Dec. 18, 1887. Height about 5 ft 3 ½ inches, weight (now) about 135 lbs. Used to be very slender. Hair medium brown – complexion fair – red of face – (somewhat). Eyes, gray; somewhat bowed of legs. Is not quick at thinking, but in her own business, things through. Is inclined to try to run the lives of those around her, and is, like Dad, “bull-headed.” Reads novels and some articles – and a few good books of a travel or geographical nature.
(I just read Galsworthy’s “Forsythe Sage,” and “Old Wives Tales” by Bennett.)


She is conciencious in her work and interests on the whole.
Mother – Nancy Berthena (Bertha) Ricketts, Hartley, Swaim. She died when I was twelve years old, and I don’t know how to judge her character. I have been told (by Dad, and by Will Lewis) that she was a fine woman32. In appearance she was gray eyed. Later – Dad says her eyes were speckled with brown. Dark brown hair, rather dark of complexion. About 5 ft 3 ½ inches tall, and until just before her death, weighed probably 130 lbs. She had rather large, but well shaped hands & feet. Conciencious and faithful in character. Somewhat of a temper, but not bad. Glenn tells me she had what would now be considered the equivalent of a common school education. Anyhow, she taught school. She had a fine sense of honor and justice (as also has Dad). Read quite a lot, anything she could get to read, and apparently, was an awfully good sport – uncomplaining in hardship and trials.
Page 134 -- Rex Glenn Lewis (Sister Glenn’s oldest boy) – Age 26 years (or 27). Heighth about 5’ 9 or 100 inches, rather “heavy set”; blond hair; light blue or gray eyes; very fair of skin, wears glasses since a child. Hair is curly. Rex is very quick to learn, and is a good worker. High school, and possibly one year of college. Rex’s chief fault is in telling big “windy” tales. I do not know from whom he inherits that trait. It may be and probably is the result of an inferiority complex.

Nov. 7, 1934 – Have just learned from old Jack Wynn, John B. Wynn, that his name is not really John B. Wynn, but is John William Wynn. He said his sweetheart started calling him that because those were the first initials of a rival in fine dressing in his younger days.

Nov 11 – Am reading Mayo’s, “Mother India,” Russell’s, “Marriage and Morals,” and Knapf’s, “the Art of Being a Woman.” I especially like Russell’s book, but haven’t begun “Mother India” yet. Also got a book by Muir – on Alaska, but I didn’t read it, as it was all about glaciers, and I am not particularly interested in glaciers.

(Several postal stamps, 2 for Dec. 4, 1934 and 2 for Dec. 20, 1934, Lysite, Wyo.)

Dec. 20 – Another milestone. I am 44 today. Have been reading “Life and Times of Cleopatra,” by (blank), “Whither Mankind”, by Beard, and am going to read, “Beyond Khyber Pass,” by Thomas.

32There is an article about her in Women of Wyoming, Vol. 2 that agrees with this description.

Don is out in camp – or rather in Shoshoni & camp. Some of their sheep got sore noses. It is thought this is caused by a germ in the feed (cotton coke, I think) and they have been doctoring them. I got a card from him today – a birthday card!.
One wonders what these time mean – a change in government or a bloodless revolution? For things have been changing so rapidly in the last two years – one wonders how long it can keep up.
Am going back again to the “personality sketches.”
William Howard Lewis – Glenn’s second boy. About Son’s heighth ; eyes light blue; hair & complexion, blond; is well built, and good looking. High school education. Is a cook by trade – and a whirlwind for work. I think he gambles which is one of his worst faults. Is honest, and truthful – always was as a boy. Is married to Lillian Koski (?) Knutilla. Lillian was married before and has a son, Wallace, by her first husband. She is a Finn. Howard and Lillian have a baby girl – Miriam Joan. Lillian herself has a fine musical education and has a pretty good voice. She has quite a personality, but is given to shrewish outbursts of temper.
Page 135 -- Charles Swaim Lewis – Glenn’s youngest boy. Is not entirely grown up yet. Is going to be fairly tall, I think. Grey eyes; blond hair and complexion; slender build; plays the piano well. Is a good student – learns well. Is in high school now – last year (12th grade) age 17.
Willie Irvin Lewis. Glenn’s husband. Height about 6 feet; grey eyes, or light blue eyes, fair complexion & hair; good teeth yet at 60. Somewhat roman nose. He is an excellent sheep man – always has his head working – but not much schooling. His nickname is “Foxy Bill.” He is a loyal friend and they have helped me more than once in a “tight pinch.”
Minnie May Swaim Logan – My youngest sister. Was killed in an auto wreck on June 16th 1925. Height was about the same as Glenn’s. Complexion & hair fair; eyes greenish (large and well placed and beautiful). Small – weight about 110 or 115 lbs. She had flashes of temper, but was never cruel, mean or unfair with them. Was an unusually fair minded woman. Taught school before her marriage. Was of fine sturdy dependable character. Episcopalian. She has two girls. Bertha, 17, and Dorothy, 13.
Bertha is a very tall girl. Blond – blue green eyes – fair hair and complexion. Long slender hands & feel. Plays the piano some, and with remarkably good rhythm . Graduates from Shoshoni High School next spring, and will probably win a scholarship, as she hasn’t much in the way of feminine competitors. If she doesn’t it is her own fault. She smokes, swears, and drinks some liquor. Is “out” with what she is, and


has the possibility of a fine personality. Is planning to take up nurses training after high school.
Dorothy Pearl Logan. A blond entirely. A big strong girl – with a big belly (for a girl of her age). Has some histrionic talent – but many things she cannot seem to learn. She is very much like her father in appearance.
Floyd Harrison Logan, Minnie’s husband. I a complete blond. 6 feet tall – large man. Is honest and consiencious . But is “bull-headed,” too.

Jan. 9, 1935 – Have been neglecting to put down here my most recent reading. I borrowed several books from Mrs. Philp who had got them from the Casper library. “The Listener,” by ____________ Page 136 -- I can not just now recall the others, two or three more.
Just got some from the library & read them. “The Hand of Fu Man Chu,” by Rohmer, and “Looking Backward.” By Bellamy. The latter impressed me very much. The former is a “washout.” Am trying to get a card of my own from the Casper Library so Glenn can have her own back. Though she doesn’t really do much reading, except stories & articles in current magazines. I always have a long list of books I am eager to read.

Jan 14 – I got the card, ok, from Casper Library. I have access to a treasure house now –
Life is taking on a richness of mind and heart that it never had before – especially since I became free from religious and factional partisanship.
Recently Mrs. Welch, our school teacher, had to quit on account of pregnancy. She hired a teacher for a few days, to end the half-year period. Mrs. Douglas E. Fuller, Jr. applied for the school, and we were considering her application, when some of the parents came to us, and, after asking us if we were considering her, and said, ”We don’t want Mrs. “Duggie” Fuller.” Mr. Fuller, Sr. The other member of the board, was out in the country, so I told Knapp I thought we had better talk the matter over. After long consultation, we decided to find out what percent of the parents did not want her – or did want her. I went over and asked people’s opinion and found that 14 were against having her, and four for her. They didn’t like her. Before she came, Mrs. Johns, who sold her house to “Duggie” went around all over town telling the scandal that had attended Christine’s marriage to “Duggie.” We had heard that when “Chris” came Mrs. Johns told her that people here were talking about her. Now, that was libel on us, as scandals are not uncommon, and we were indifferent to that phase of her life. Everyone felt sorry for Christ thinking she had got a “dirty deal,” and went out of their way to be nice to her. But she did not respond. Page 137 – She

appeared supercilious33, arrogant – and somewhat sneering. Of course, such behavior repelled people, and she came to be pretty generally disliked. I found this was the reason people did not want her as a teacher – that, and because she was on a “drinking spree” one evening. Unfortunately she could not realize this, and she accused me of misrepresenting her education! I told her frankly – I felt impelled to – just what was the matter, and she ran off up to Lander to tattle to the County Superintendent of Schools. Esther (Mrs. Herold Day) when I had gone to ask her opinion of hiring “Chris,” said, “Yes, of course I am for Mrs. Fuller. Why didn’t you ask us this question about hiring Mrs. Welch, last spring”? “It was not necessary,” I said. I might have added that I had totaled up all for and against her, Mrs. Welch, also, and majority ruled. They had wanted her. About two hours after my talk with Esther (She had said some very unkind things to me about Mrs. Welch, who was not under discussion.) I learned that Esther had turned against me more, and was criticizing me for having consulted people about hiring “Chris.” (I had not told her that some of the parents had told us they did not want her.)
Thereafter, I left Esther alone – speaking courteously when I saw her.
Dad came down here today, and asked me to “make it up” with Esther – for Esther was sorry for her behavior, but was too stubborn to admit it. So I promised Dad that I would. Yet, I can’t help wondering why I should be the one to “make it up” when I did not wrong? Simply because I can do it, I suppose. I harbor no maliciousness within me, nor petty spite. I detest them. But I have developed a sense of right – an honesty of purpose that protects me against ill natured persons. It is sort of defensive.

Page 138 -- (Written backwards at the top of the page) – I am left-handed in everything except writing, and I can do a pretty good job of that, can’t I? Lovina Swaim Robson, Lysite, Wyoming. 1935.

Jan. 22 -- Lindberg case So many interesting things are happening, it is hard to write about them all.
A few years ago, a young man, Charles Augustus Lindberg, “The Lone Eagle,” spanned the Atlantic Ocean by airplane, the first successfully to make the flight. He returned home by steamship and was lauded to the skies – almost worshipped by millions of people. Later, on one of his flights in Mexico, he met Ann Morrow, daughter of the American Ambassador to Mexico, and later married

33supercilious \soo-pur-SILL-ee-us\, adjective: Lofty with pride; haughty; dictatorial; overbearing; arrogant; as, a supercilious officer; a supercilious air; supercilious behavior.


her. They had a nice baby boy – Charles, junior, and early in 1932 the child was kidnapped and held for ransom. $50,000.00 was paid, but the baby was not returned. Later it was found dead not far from the Lindberg place. Of course, the police have been working on the case ever since. In the meantime the government, for economic purposes; withdrew from circulation all gold, and gold certificates. Some of the ransom money had been paid in gold certificates, and these have been appearing from time to time (noticeable on account of their rarity, and also because the numbers of all the ransom money was known. All of us postmasters got lists of the numbers) Finally a garage attendant in New York City was given one of them in payment for gasoline. He took down the car license number, and reported to police. The car belonged to one Bruno Richard Hauptmann, a German who came to the United States illegally. He had a police record in Germany. Some of the ransom money was found in his garage, and elsewhere in his place, and he was arrested. The trial is being held in New Jersey, now where Lindberghs live. Many people think that he had another helper, or more. One Isad or Fisch, sometimes known as John – now deceased – was alleged to have been implicated. Hauptmann has three times been put through the third degree, but will not confess. Personally I think Hauptmann, is guilty, though he may have had accomplices. Hand writing experts are on the case and they say there is no room for doubt that Hauptmann is guilty. Of course everyone is interested. Radio news, and newspapers give the latest progress of the trial. This only one of many interesting and remarkable things that are occurring .
Page 139 -- (By the by – there are to be 7 eclipses this year – five of the sun, and two of the moon. The last time this ocured was in 1805. The next time will be in 2435.
Just finished reading “Rasputin, the Holy Devil,” by Miller. Very interesting and revealing. I now have, ready to read, “Making the Most of Your Life,” by Morgan T. Webb, and “British Agent,” by Lockhart. I already have read Lockhart’s book. They sent it as a substitute for another book I ordered by Lockhart.

Feb 13 – Grandpa Swaim -- Moses Swaim and Lovina Stack were married in 1848. She was 17 and he was 26. (Married in North Carolina, in around Greensborough – in Guildford County.) It is possible that their eldest child John was born in N.C. They emigrated to Indiana sometime after their marriage and then went on to Iowa, where they preempted land, but abandoned it, and returned to Indiana. Sometime after marriage, and before leaving the South, Moses raised a company to fight in the

Mexican War, and was appointed Captain of the company, but the war ended and they disbanded before mustering out. He had drilled his men. (Old Wright was Grandmother Lovina’s grandfather) They bought about 40 acres in Indiana. This information was received from Dad. (C. C. Swaim) today. He said that his mother used to tell about Old Wright (the owner of the ancient spectacles). He was a miller during the revolutionary war when he grew old, he made baskets. He had a hook which he used in some way in connection with it. One day when all the folks were gone from home (except the children) this hook disappeared and he was accusing the children of having taken it – had them lined up in front of him when grandmother & grandfather came home. Grandmother was his granddaughter. He (Wright) was my great grand father.

Page 140 – Feb. 14 – The Hauptmann trial ended last night (at 8:30 Mountain Time) (at 10:30 E.S. time) when the jury returned a verdict of guilty in the first degree. No recommendation for mercy was made, so the judge (Trenchard) sentenced him to the electric chair during the week of March 18. The counsel for the defense announced his intention to appeal the case to the higher courts. Don’t know yet whether the appeal will be allowed, or not.
The verdict has created a wide sensation – as, indeed, has the whole trial. Many people believe he had accomplices, or that he was is innocent. I do not think that justice has gone astray.

March 5 – Sunday (the 3rd of March) we – Donald and I – were in Thermopolis and saw a “movie.” Also, heard and saw Hauptman behind the bars declare himself innocent, and ask for another trial in the higher courts.
Am now reading Edna St. Vincent Millay’s “Wine From These Grapes,” a book of poetry – quite good. Also am reading Carleton Beal’s “Fire in the Andes.” (Mrs. Van Okie says her sister is now divorced from Beals.) Have another book “The Eve of Conflict,” by Milton which I am reading too. Usually I read two or three books at once – it relieves possible monotony.
Donald was home over the week-end, but is going back to herding again for another month.

Mar. 6 – Troubles Occasionally – very occasionally – I indulge in self-pity. This happens to be one of those times. It is a silly weakness, I know. Perhaps it is not wholly “self-pity.” Perhaps it is partly wounded affections. All day, I have been remembering Esther’s falsity. It hurts to be abused and misjudged by the person you think much of – by the person, who, above nearly all others should know you and


your motives best. But why worry? I’m going to try to forget it. The time may come when I can talk with her about it. It seems like the harder one strives to be fair, the harder one labors on the thankless job of a school trustee, the more abuse and rivilings one gets from the poor sports who constitute the minority on important questions. I should not mind it so much, but I know she was influenced by Mrs. D. E. Fuller Jr., a shallow, pretentious, egotistical, ignoramus with a college degree.
Page 141 – I believe I failed to mention that I am making a puff quilt. The wool is Robson & Scott wool which I washed and carded myself.

Mar. 21 – Dad says Old John Swaim34 made his money as a “sutler”35 during the Civil War, selling things to the soldiers. Also, had bonds, bog land, which, when drained, became valuable etc. He was a judge in N.C. He fell in love with another woman, and ran off with her.36

April 9 – (Cricket’s calf was born this morning.)

April 22 – Yesterday was Easter Sunday (April 21). I helped Claude Nichols haul a little “pickup” load of hay for the cows from John Day’s place. Got a little new canary bird from Manda’s (Davis) folks. It is less than 6 weeks old now. Her brother’s wife (George Brown’s wife) raises them. Both Manda and I have missed our birds since they died. So we both are getting one again. Florence Waln, her sister, came over for Easter dinner and brought the birds. I ate dinner with them yesterday. Then came home, carried mail for the 4:05 (p.m.) o’clock train, and then went over to Don’s camp to get their supper. Robson and Scott have just sheared (or shorn) their sheep (Apr. 18-19) and Don has the “Bum” bunch, and the yearlings – an awful combination, and has Laurence Parks helping him. Laurence was 20 yesterday. George Fuller was supposed to shear today, but he has been putting off the shearers until they became incensed and left. We had supper, and after supper Don went with me in to Shoshoni. (He is camped on the hills overlooking the highway – between the old and new highways.) We had to get out from camp in the Old Highway, then when we came out of Shoshoni we came on the new highway and just opposite his camp, Don got out, to walk to camp, about ¼ mile. I arrived home about 10:15 p.m. The wind is blowing badly again, this morning. Dust from Texas, I think, anyhow, a South-West wind.

34This would be son of Christopher.
35A supplier to soldiers.
36This does not agree with newspaper articles, but later legal issues give credence to her story.

Referring to the Hauptmann case, mentioned on the preceding page, in a recent “Saturday Evening Post” article the wood expert tells how he traced the wood from the kidnapper’s ladder back to Hauptmann. It is intensely interesting, and there can be no mistake; Hauptmann is the kidnapper of the Lindbergh baby.

Page 142 – (top margin) “You must be a believer… You must detach yourself from the old things you believed, but not from the beautiful old power of believing. Henry Barbusse.
Son is now working for Scotty Hendry.
Some reading lately. Mostly in the old “Golden Book” magazines borrowed from the school library.
How I do wish sometimes, I could get away from everything – I have such a multiplicity of affairs – and sometimes I wonder just how valuable it all is. Yet, my mind is very active, and I should die of boredom if I were cooped up for very long. If I had a secret palace where I could go to get away from everything for a time, where no one could find me. I crave a certain amount of privacy which it is impossible to get here.

April 26 – The train – No. 29 was late yesterday. It arrived at about 6:15 p.m. A snow blockade someplace down the line towards Cheyenne.

May 4 – This is the anniversary of Son’s birthday; he is twenty six years old.
Am reading Young’s “The Medici” and it is bringing some long long thoughts to me.
Each of us has within himself an inconquerable longing to “be someone.” It seems to be an inescapable heritage of the conquering species of the Earth. Theologians would tell us that this feeling is wrong, and that whether or not our name is known makes no difference. But I see that it does make a difference. A man, attaining fame, in any worthy way, leaves to his posterity an ideal of intelligence or ability a belief in inheritance that plays a large part in developing and maintaining a high standard of intelligence, education, power to accomplish, and at least some money or natural wealth to accomplish, and maintain in the family. All this our motives cannot be purely impersonal. To help the whole race of man is a worth motive; but the impulse to help, or develop the race by helping maintaining or developing ourselves is more powerful, in its motivating action. Man could not have attained his present status without some such powerful personal motive.
Page 143 – So, each of us must strive for accomplishment, worthy accomplishment. We must


set the pace. We must set a new high water mark, or standard of excellence in ability and intelligence.

(In the top margin of the page) Lorenzo De Medici: “He only knows how to conquer who knows how to forgive.”

May 16 – Charles Archibald Dingle was born in Edina, Knox County, Missouri, on Feb. 8, 1862. He was the son of Doctor Edward Francis Dingle and wife, Ann Eliza Bryant Dingle. After his parents’ death, when he was a small child, he went to live with a maternal uncle, Judge Archibald Bryant, at Council Bluffs, Iowa. Later, he spent some time with his uncle, Wm. G. Bryant at Edina, MO. During the early years of his life he traveled about considerably.
In 1914 (?) he came to Lysite, where he has remained ever since. Mr. Dingle has had and excellent reputation for honesty and in later years, sobriety, in this community. He was a member of the Methodist church during the time the church work was being carried on here. Mr. Dingle’s father, Dr. Edward Francis Dingle was also left an orphan at an early age, and was reared at Palmyra, MO., by his paternal uncle, Wynder, (or Winder) Dingle.

May 19 – What a glorious thing is rain! Even if it does harm the lambs – or kill them! For three or four years this has been a drouth stricken area and how good it is to have moisture again. It rained all night last night: very little ran off. Most of it soaked down in. But we want some flood waters, too, to fill the reservoirs.

May 20 – In “Anthony Adverse,” Hervey Allen makes one of his characters, Carol Cibo, say, “When we are young… we tell ourselves and each other, neither we nor our friends who are so unusual are understood. The world, we think, is not subtle enough to understand us. But we are wrong. The adult world is far too subtle to waste much time on us. It understands us instinctively, by first remembering itself. It has thought through all our thoughts, and is tired of our violent emotions. It does not need to care about youth because it knows youth will get older. Good old world! It is the young who do not understand it, or themselves. From 15 to 20 youth is busy talking about itself, Page 144 -- and trying to hatch doorknobs by brooding over them in a fever. Eggs – I mean events. They hatch themselves. Fate laid them there pregnant on a warm beach. Everything that survives the process grows up according to the plan of its own egg. You can’t do much about it. Not nearly as much as you think…” Grow up as soon as you can… The only time you

really live is from 30 to 60… provided you are healthy and don’t die…”
I enjoyed the Medici book very much. Unfortunately, this particular volume has some missing in the back – also some of the notes. It is not torn, just left out. Also enjoyed Dumas’ “The Queen’s Necklace,” an historical novel of Marie Antoinette’s time.
“Anthony Adverse” has more than 1200 pages in it so is slow reading. Also, am going to read Lockhart’s “Retreat from Glory,” soon. (A lot of “alsos”!) I must watch my English. I’ve got so I hate moralizing – guess I had enough of it when I preached.
Rain and Feed – It has rained a good deal this spring – trying to make up for the several years’ drouth . What the middle west has suffered by that drouth . And the ignoramuses back east, and elsewhere are laying our lack of feed on the country to “The sheep and cattle hoofs” – How come the feed is growing so beautifully this year under the beneficence of the Rain? There are still millions of sheep and thousands of cattle in Wyoming.
Have been reading over some of my learned talk about the world war – during the world war. Time tells another tale about it. We were controlled by propagandists then, and probably we are now about other affairs. I have lost all faith in the propagandists, the churches, who are propagandists for their own particular ideas. The newspapers – in the grip of the rich and powerful, the radio, the game books, also, many of them, though by now means all, and schools & ideas therein are controlled by propagandists, advertisements, etc. Each one trying to make humanity over into his own particular pattern – trying to make us all alike as two peas.
Page 145 – In the 1935 Book Supply Co. catalog, in the index I have checked some of the books I have read. But I have read literally hundreds of books more – not listed in the catalog, or ones listed but I am not sure of the author. Those in the catalog with a question mark (?) are ones I am not sure about the author. Those marked “P” or “S: I have read part of – sometimes individual essays included in a book, etc.
“Anthony Adverse” – Dr. Mitchell, a character, says of his father, “He had a pride that lasted longer than any Christian conscience .

May 23 – Bertha graduates – also Swaim Lewis graduated. Bertha Logan graduated from high school yesterday, at Shoshoni. I had intended to go down, but it looked so stormy (the Moneta-Lysite roads have been so bad, due to recent rains) that I was afraid to start out.


Changed Ideas – I am coming to believe that any creed, carried too far, can work harm, no matter how good, in itself that creed may be. I know, now, that I, myself, have carried love and forgiveness too far in my own family. Love will not accomplish all things. Nor will forgiveness – eternal forgiveness – solve all difficulties. To much love and forgiveness cause much evil. In my own life, I see it.
A certain amount of forgiveness is necessary. Beyond that it is an encouragement of evil habits and wrong doing. Never try to shield people from the results of their own wrong doing. To do so will prevent them from learning that there are results. And let them have the results of their right doing – that they may see that there are results.

May 29 – Tomorrow is Decoration Day (Memorial Day). I went over to Shoshoni on Thursday (23rd) (Dad went, too) and got Bertha’s things. She stayed there for a Friday picnic, and came up on Saturday with Mrs. James Scott who was going out to camp to cook for lambing. The world is so full of interesting things.
I was 44 years old last December 20.

Page 146 – (Top margin: 1935) Myself
In about Sept. – Nov. 1931 the last appearance of menstruation appeared in me. At present, more than three years later, my body seems to have adjusted itself perfectly to the change. It all occurred in a natural, normal way. It was, I must say, certainly not accompanied by any of the oddities or erratic manifestations said to be common in women during that period. Only one genuine change in my nature has occurred, apparently simultaneously with the change – and I cannot be sure how much of that was a natural evolution of mind, or ripening of wisdom. That change was from religioness to irreligion. I would say that I have “ripened” into irreligion. For I believe thoroughly in moderation and wise living – in chastity of mind and body – more so than before, if possible. But my reasons now, are biological – rather than religions. Care not a whit what God said about things, but I see now that if he did say some of the things attributed to him, he was or is a pretty wise old gentleman, and worth listening to. This irreligion has, of necessity reached out and touched other ideas and ideals in my life. I am not conscious of any lowering of moral standards; rather, a mellowing.
I have a passionate desire to see my son, my nephews and nieces educated, marry well – (that is marry intelligent, level-headed, well balanced, ambitious healthy people). I want them to merge their seed with level-headed, intelligence, health, moral & mental stamina.

Postal Stamp in left margin – July 14, 1935 Lysite, Wyoming – John Swaim37 (checked on page 59) was the father of Robert Swaim. Robert Swaim was Mother’s Uncle – and Father’s half-cousin. He was also Father’s uncle my marriage. He married Charlotte Stack – Lovina Stack Swaim’s sister.

July 25 – At the annual school meeting on June 17 Mrs. Douglas E. Fuller and Mrs. Fred Crowley came out 60 miles to pick a fight. They tried to keep Mr. Welch off the board, and almost succeeded, because we were not aware of their designs. They have no reason to dislike Mr. Welch, but they apparently do. Page 147 – He taught a class of boys in manual training for two years – free. He built cupboards and all kinds of things for the school – free. He took part in community activities willingly and is a good actor. He fixed up the movie machine we bought, so it could be used, and always put on a show every week for two writers – free. Not many men in town have done nearly as much for the town as he has. Mrs. Crowley & Fuller Jr. hate Mrs. Welch, so of course they must fight Mr. Welch.
They tried to put in Mr. Cunningham who wouldn’t turn his hand over to save the life of any one in this town – or anywhere else for that matter.

(Top margin) “Enmity towards the senses, where it is not a sign of moral ugliness, is evidence of nothing better than impotence.” Count Hermann Keyserling.

Aug. 14 – More books read. Recently have read a number of books. “The Canary Murder Case,” by S. S. Van Dine, “My Story,” by Mary Roberts Rinehart, and “Utopia,” by Moore. It is rather difficult to keep up on the books I have read. I keep forgetting to put them down here. Here are some of them. Rinehart’s “The Amazing Interlude,” Albert Wiggam’s “The Next Age of Man,” Aristotle Francis’ “The Revolt of the Angels,” and am now reading Fowler’s, “Timberline.”
Haven’t been reading so very much this summer.
In the Aug. “Harper’s,” read a couple of good articles – one by Stuart Chase. (I think it was by him.) “The Parade of the Gravediggers,” and by another, an article on the present economic situation.

Aug. 17 – Bertha left today for Pueblo to begin her nurse’s training in Corwin Hospital. She went with Maurice Logan, his wife and son.
Yesterday morning (Aug. 16) when I went down to the train at 9:30 am, the agent, Mr. D’Joe

37 This would be John Swaim born 1797. Robert was born 1819 in NC.


told me he had just heard over the telegraph wires that Wile Post and Will Rogers were killed in an airplane crash in Alaska. I will try to save the Casper Tribune-Herald that has in it an account of the crash. It is in this morning’s paper.

Aug. 20 – Today is Schoenings birthday. Wish I could write down all of the book I am reading. (Am writing sitting up in bed) It (the book) is, “The Marks of an Educated Man,”by Albert Edward Wiggams. Page 148 – There seem to be 19 “marks:” (1) He cultivates the open mind; (2) He combines the three great heritages of education. He must be touched with social passions of Christianity , enlightened by the Greek passion for truth & beauty and energized by the Roman will to power; (3) He achieves the techniques of open mindedness; (4) He always listens to the man how knows; (5) He never laughs at new ideas; (7)38 He knows the secret of getting along with others; (8) He cultivates the habit of success; (9) He knows as a man thinketh so is he; (10) He knows that popular notions are always wrong; (11) You can’t sell him magic; (12) He links himself with a great cause; (13) He builds an ambition picture to fit his abilities; (14) He always tries to feel the emotion he ought to feel; (15) He keeps busy at his highest natural level in order to be happy useful & good; (16) He knows it is never too late to learn; (17) he never looses faith in the man he might have been; (18) He achieves the masteries that make him a world citizen; and (19) He lives a great religious life.
Some of these chapters doubtless need explaining. I note in the last chapter that the term, “religious life,” is not used by him in the accepted sense of the term. Broadly speaking, to him, “religion” of the future will be social justice, and the kingdom of heaven established on Earth through science – through knowledge. To him, literally, “The truth shall make us free.”

(Top margin) (The alarm clock beside my bed does a jig its ticking every once in a while) Aug.20. 8:20 pm. Read, “The Fruit of the Family Tree,” by Wiggam.

“Pathfinders of America,” J. Franklin Wright, Detroit, Michigan. Two or more persons can form a council & receive instruction by mail, without charge.

Aug. 24 – My latest reading is John Buchan’s, “Oliver Cromwell” or, strictly speaking I sketched a part of it, as I was not interested in battles, military maneuvers, etc. I have, however, a new knowledge of

38Love misses number 6.

Cromwell. He has been much maligned. History was written by his enemies, apparently.
Don was down for some supplies yesterday. Ate dinner, here. (midday meal)

Aug. 30 -- The old cow – Velvet, had her calf on Aug. 18. She nearly died of mild fever. They gave her a pound or so of Epson salts. Then borrowed my syringe and gave her an anema . Also a douche and finally brought her out of it. The calf is another bull. Cricket bred the latter part of (illegible) to the roan Lybyer bull.

Sept. 20 – Margery Wilson’s, “Charm.” 1 Be interested; 2 Be kind; “ a young man without opportunity to learn the best etiquette – Told me he had a prescription that never had failed him yet. He’d say, “Why I love these people.” And put himself in their place. Then his action was appropriate and always saved his face. 3 Balance – walk on one line instead of two. Do not sprawl – it is not courteous. The correct thing is always the shortest, smoothest and simplest way to any point. In going upstairs, don’t lean forward.

Page 149 – (Top margin) (Indifference (on balance, bottom of p. 148) sprawling denotes indifference, and that is neither polite nor kind) (Loose manners almost always denote loose morals and loose honesty.)

Don’t bob. Gestures are well, if they aid in picturing an idea. Do not maul one another – keep your hands off others… and off yourself – your face – hair, etc., no squirming or restlessness. Pay no attention to yourself in public. Dress yourself in private. When holding anything, flower, etc., use thumb and middle finger is more (illegible), relaxed looking, more graceful. Middle finger is the emotional finger. We use it to touch things. Listening is charm incarnate – intense listening. Never be caught trying to look attractive. Better be frankly ugly. Sincerity has its own charm, even there.
No one’s life is completely satisfying unless he or she is attractive to the other sex. Men & women are necessary to one another & fundamentally. (She speaks of sex psychologists as “one-word rubber dolls.” Pinch them anywhere and they squeak, “sex.”) Indifference is the toy of the flirt. As soon as it is gone, the charm is gone. It is too cheap & shallow to consider.
Don’t be dull and languid around your own sex and light up when the opposite sex appears …. Manners must have their birth in feeling or they are of no value. Men crave an audience for their prowess and why shouldn’t we women be that audience? The


charm of encouragement – of approvel is feminine. Men need this type of encouragement more than women. Clever is the woman who serves her family old fashioned “applesauce” at every meal. I f they don’t get it at home, they will get it elsewhere. Do not be flamboyantly “female” – somewhat catty, but be truly feminine. Praise, praise… “Keep thine eye simple” to the good only… Praise! Charm has much to do with the art of pleasing, and the most pleasant thing we can do for others is to make them pleased with themselves. Do not depreciate yourself. It places an embarrassing upon your listeners of defending you from yourself. Affected modesty is sickening good never to refer to yourself at all. A direct question about yourself should be answered briefly and then skillfully change the subject. When you don’t know a thing, say so, and ask them to tell you, it pleases them.
Be a good listener, it pleases them – by expression – posture (a gentle long breath caught and held – you are fascinated). When you talk don’t cover too many details. Paint clear cut word pictures and leave your hearers to fill in the details. Do not talk (a) in elevators (B) at weddings; (c) or funerals; (D) or table. Keep talk in short sentences – save long talk for end of meal. Don’t let the “small” talk “dog” at table – direct questions, send it along – bring out the best in everyone. Try to let no one monopolize the conversation. Do not return a compliment at the time. Let him have his little triumph. Don’t cap anyone’s climax by going them one better. Page 150 -- Taking ourselves to seriously is a subtle selfishness, and that is always death to charm. Charm is never strenuous or extreme about anything. Without the clear vision of poise there can be no good taste.

(Top margin) Musical Raindrops – a medly of notes falling – tinkling as many lovely sounding raindrops.

Postal Stamp Sep 20, 1935 Lysite, Wyo. Sept. 22 is Bertha’s birthday. She was born Sept. 22, 1917.

Oct. 20 – The drouth continues. Scientists say we are in for a 50 year drouth period. They think there will be extensive migrations as there was from drouth in the Mayan & other civilizations. A number of “drouth cycles” converging. If this occurs, where will we go? What will we do? I cannot imagine.

Nov. 3 – For the day, I shall have a “breathing spell” from work, and am taking the opportunity to write.
My main news is that “Son” – Henry E. Jensen – Henry Edward Johnson, Jr – has a job on a newspaper. He has a friend, Bob White, who was Editor of the “Branding Iron” the Wyoming University newspaper. Son worked on the paper off

& on – mostly on – for several school terms. Bob is from Lovell. Charles Ackenhausen (incidentally a former postmaster at Worland) started a newspaper, “The Wyoming News,” at Worland, and Bob got the reporter job. Then Bob got a choice to work as reporter on the “Tribune” at Cheyenne. While he was awaiting the call to Cheyenne, he was afraid to tell his boss, (Ackenhausen), lest he be prematurely deprived of a job. So he kept it a secret from his boo, but invited Son down to visit him, in Worland, of course. Son met Ackenhausen, helped Bob on his reporter work and became acquainted with it. Then, when Bob’s call came to Cheyenne, he recommended Son, and Son got the job – (although another young man with equal experience applied). Bob came through Lysite on the train Oct. 26, and told son to “get going” so we let Son have the “Chevy” pickup Sunday, Oct. 27, and he went to Worland and got the job. He returned home that evening, packed his things and went again on the 28th (Monday). He came home last evening for a dance here, and brought a copy of the paper, several copies. I have a copy, and his articles are checked. Page 151 – I am so delighted, and am hoping he makes good. I educated him mostly myself (all except what he did for himself) and what the School District did) and his father would not contribute a penny, to his education, nor an ounce of energy. Indeed, ever since Son was ten or eleven years old, his father said he owed Son nothing, and would not acknowledge any responsibility whatever regarding Son’s “keep” or his education. Consequently, the whole burden of it was thrown upon me – and I did it. If for my labor, and eve, almost, starving, to keep him in school. He did not graduate, but doesn’t lack much of it.

Nov. 3 – Am now listening to Jascha Heifetz the violinist – over the radio. (National Broadcasting Co. station K O.A. Denver, Colo 8 pm. M.S.T.) How beautiful it is! I believe the violin is king (or queen) of musical instruments. He is getting a rousing encore. Now, Wagner’s “The Ride of the Valkeries (right spelling?) orchestra, apparently. This is a General Motors program. Mr. ___ Sloan, Jr. president of G.M.A.C. spoke briefly afterward. Then Heifetz, again, in a Kneisler arrangement of a Spanish piece.

Nov. 4 – We are having Christmas weather. Reports (and thermometers) varied, but it was 20 or 23 below zero here last night, or rather, at sunup this morning.
This is Jimmie Scott’s birthday – he is 45.

Nov. 24 Sunday Eve 7:30 pm – Have not been reading much lately, and have failed to record here what I did read. Here are some of them. “Cannibal Quest,” by Gordon Sinclair; “All Soul’s Night,” by


Diary is continued here

Deb Murray