ELWOOD HAYNES. Indiana could place in its hall of fame a long list of statesmen, soldiers, scholars and authors, business and industrial leaders, men who have been in a proper sense creators of our modern destiny, and by no means least among them would appear the late Elwood Haynes, of Kokomo, whose designation among the great Americans of his generation will be that of scientist and inventor. Elwood Haynes from boyhood was interested in the world about him, lived an interesting life and early turned his attention to scientific experiments. He was a practical scientist, and in particular had a marked genius for turning the discoveries of the laboratories into practical forms that would bring new uses and enjoyments to every day life. His name is now and in the future will be associated chiefly with three achievements. The first was designing America's first mechanically successful gasoline power automobile. He also discovered a valuable alloy known as Stellite. In recent years increasing significance has been given to his invention and discovery of stainless steel.

Elwood Haynes was born at Portland, Indiana, October 14, 1857, and died at his home in Kokomo, April 13, 1925. His father, Judge Jacob March Haynes, was a lawyer and public official of Eastern Indiana. Born at Monsen, Massachusetts, April 12, 1817, he began at the age of thirteen, work for his father, who conducted a harness and carriage trimming shop at Southbridge, Massachusetts. Subsequently he took up the study of law, and in 1844 settled at Portland, Indiana. Judge Haynes married Hilinda Sophia Haines. These parents had a family of eight children, of whom Elwood was the fifth. The others were: Elinore Josephine, born in June, 1850, and died in 1918, was for many years a school teacher at Portland; Susan Izabelle, born at Portland in 1851 and died in 1902, was married in 1872 to Charles F. Headington; Walter March, born in September, 1853, and died on Easter Sunday in 1929, was a director of the Haynes Automobile Company and president of the Peoples Bank of Portland; Sumner Watson, born April 15, 1855, who is practicing law at Portland and has been prominent in the Prohibition party of Indiana; Frank, born March 28, 1861, a rancher at Maybell, Colorado; Calvin Herbert, born February 7, 1864, in the automobile finance business at San Francisco; Edward Maurice, born August 12, 1867, president of the Haynes Milling Company of Portland.

Elwood Haynes was endowed with keen powers of observation and as a boy growing up in the Village of Portland he spent much of his time in the surrounding forests, learning the ways of wild birds and animals. Books also influenced him, and one of the most important, which he read when about twelve years of age, was Wells' Principles of Natural .Philosophy and Chemistry, one of the old time text books whose pages would frighten any modern school boy, but whose contents opened up a completely new world to Elwood Haynes. He was especially interested in the chapters on chemistry, and at an early age began to inquire into the fundamental properties of matter. He devised some crude apparatus, which enabled him to prepare hydrogen gas, chlorine and oxygen. That was the beginning of a lifelong interest in laboratory analysis and experiment. In after years he devoted special study to the rarer metals, particularly chromium, cobalt, aluminum and tungsten. At the age of fifteen he made a furnace in his back yard, devising a home-made blower, and in that furnace he succeeded in melting brass and cast iron, but could not develop a temperature high enough to melt steel.

At the age of twenty, having taken two years of work in the recently established high school at Portland, he went east to Worcester, Massachusetts, and in 1881 was graduated from the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. After returning to Indiana, he taught a district school for a year. The school was five miles from his home and part of the time he walked the entire distance twice a day. For two years he was principal of the high school of Portland. During 1884-85, he enjoyed a year of post-graduate study in Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore. For another year he taught in the Eastern Indiana Normal School, then located at Portland.

Mr. Haynes was a business man as well as a scientist, and the discovery of natural gas at Portland in 1886 gave him the opportunity to use his talents in both fields. He organized a company for supplying the town with gas. At that time he devised a method for determining the amount of gas flowing through apertures of various sizes under various pressures. He also invented a thermostat for regulating the temperature of a room heated by natural gas. This apparatus he used successfully about fourteen years in his own home.

In 1889 he took charge of the construction of a gas pipe line from Pennville to Portland, a distance of about ten miles. It was while driving back and forth between Pennville and Portland with a horse and buggy that he conceived the idea of a machine that would travel on the road under its own power. He rejected the idea of steam power since the use of fire would always be a menace in case of collision or accident. On the other hand, a little investigation showed him that the use of electricity would necessitate, in order to provide one horse power for two and a half hours, a battery weighing about 1,250 pounds. The greatest promise of power seemed to be offered in the internal combustion engines, which were then in a crude and experimental stage.

Mr. Haynes in 1890 established his home at Greentown and took charge of the gas field of the Indiana Natural Gas & Oil Company. This company in 1892 completed a line for piping gas from the Indiana field to the City of Chicago. The line was completed in the fall, and a few weeks later, with the advent of cold weather, the line was clogged with ice, which formed on the interior of the pipes. Mr. Haynes had previously suggested to the president of the company that this condition might arise, since the gas, containing a certain amount of moisture, in passing northward into colder regions, and particularly where the pipes were exposed in the sandy district near Kouts and Winamac, would condense the moisture and thus interfere with, if not completely stop, the passage of the gas. As soon as this stoppage occurred the president asked Mr. Haynes to solve the problem. The solution he suggested was to freeze the gas or pass it over some hydroscopic material which would extract the moisture from it before being started through the pipe line. After a number of experiments he decided on the method of extracting the moisture by freezing the gas, and accordingly a refrigerator plant was set up at Greentown. By this means about eighteen barrels of water per day were extracted from the gas, and the trouble occasioned by the freezing in the line was entirely eliminated. Since that time the method devised by Mr. Haynes has been used not only for removing moisture from gas, but also for drying air.

In 1892 Mr. Haynes established his home at Kokomo, and that Indiana city for many years claimed him as its most eminent citizen. While living at Greentown he had kept in mind the problem of making a machine for road travel, but the opportunity to concentrate his mind and carry out practical experiments did not arrive until he was established at Kokomo. In the summer of 1893 he began the design and completed his drawing in the early fall of that year. He bought a small gas engine from the Sintz Gas Engine Company of Grand Rapids, Michigan. This engine was of the vertical, single cylinder, two-cycle type, giving only one brake horse power. Mr. Haynes had not only the problem before him of applying this power to a vehicle that would run on the road, but he also had to consider and solve other problems in the almost complete absence of scientific or engineering data, which can now be found available in numberless treatises and text books. In order to find out the torque or pull required of the engine he attached a bicycle bearing a rider to the rear end of a small buckboard drawn by a horse. The string from the bicycle was attached to a spring scale fixed in the buggy. The buggy was driven back and forth over the streets until he established an average of records showing that it required about one and three-quarters pounds of pull for each hundred pounds of weight of the bicycle and its rider, or about seventeen and a half pounds to pull a load of a thousand pounds.

Mr. Haynes placed the order for the manufacture of the machine according to his design with the Kokomo Riverside Machine Works, owned by Elmer Apperson. Mr. Apperson carefully supervised the construction work and the machine was ready for trial July 4, 1894. When taken on the streets the crowd immediately gathered around, and it was considered hazardous to attempt a trial run, since there were no questions as to when the machine would start and when it would stop after it once got going. Accordingly the machine was towed out into the country, where the motor was thrown into gear by means of the clutch. The machine was pushed forward a short distance, when the motor started under its own power, and thus America's first mechanically successful gasoline power automobile was under way. It carried three passengers a distance of about a mile and a half before it was stopped. It was then turned about and driven all the way back into Kokomo without making a stop. The speed was only about seven miles per hour, but so long as the road was level it could maintain this speed for an indefinite period. This little machine was run all told a distance of perhaps a thousand miles. Compared to our automobile it had an exceedingly crude and limited service, but what it did to awaken the attention of the world to locomotion by means of internal combustion engines was incalculable. The original Haynes motor car today occupies a conspicuous place in the motor exhibits at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.

Mr. Haynes' second car was built in 1895, also with the assistance of Elmer Apperson. It was a dos-a-dos four-passenger trap, propelled by a double cylinder, double opposed motor of their own design and manufacture. The machine was entered in the Chicago Herald Times contest on Thanksgiving Day, 1895. The ground was covered with snow on that day and on the way to the starting point the machine skidded. One of the wire wheels was broken, and since there was no duplicate of the wheel in the world, it was impossible for the machine to participate. However, it was awarded a prize of $150 for the best balanced motor.

In 1898 the Haynes-Apperson Company was formed. In 1902 Elmer and Edgar Apperson withdrew and began the manufacture of cars of their own, and in a short time the name Haynes-Apperson Company was changed to the Haynes Automobile Company, which continued the manufacture of cars for twenty years, and probably some of the sturdy cars of this name are still on the road.

While Mr. Haynes became a very successful manufacturer, his enthusiasm never subsided for experiment in his laboratory. In 1899 he discovered an alloy of nickel and chromium, and shortly afterward an alloy of cobalt and chromium. These alloys were produced at first in very minute quantities, but in 1907 he took out patents covering their manufacture and use. In 1910 a paper was read before the American Chemical Society at San Francisco describing the alloys and their properties. Undoubtedly his work did much to open the way for advance in the field of metallurgy in the combination of metals which have revolutionized the technique of tool making and the application of alloys to practical industry. A still greater advance was made when Mr. Haynes discovered that by adding tungsten or molybdenum to the cobalt-chromium alloy a much harder composition could be produced. In 1913 patents were issued for these compositions. In the meantime he had erected a small building on South Union Street in Kokomo for their commercial manufacture, and between the time of the allowance of the patents and their issue he completed the building and sold a thousand dollars worth of the metal. These alloys are recognized now as indispensable for lathe tools. Near the end of the third year the business was organized into a corporation consisting of three members, Richard Ruddell, a banker, James C. Patten, a manufacturer, both of Kokomo, and Mr. Haynes. The World war made a great market for this product. It has been stated on good authority that fully half of the shrapnel for the allies was made with Stellite tools.

It was in 1919 that Mr. Haynes secured his patent on his first great discovery, stainless steel. That patent was assigned to the American Stainless Steel Company of Pittsburgh. At the time of his death Mr. Haynes was one of the board of directors of this company. Several of the great alloy steel companies are now making stainless steel under a royalty contract, and it is having such diversified use that undoubtedly in a few years it will be accepted as a commonplace.

In his political affiliation Elwood Haynes was for many years an active figure in the Prohibition party of Indiana. Later he affiliated with the Republican party. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, was an honorary member of the Rotary Club, member of the Society of Automobile Engineers, the Chemists Club, and member of the American Chemists Society and the Iron and Steel Institute.

He married in 1887 Bertha B. Lanterman, of Portland. They had two children. The daughter, Bernice, born December 7, 1892, is the wife of Glen R. Hillis, now a prosecuting attorney of Howard County, and their three children are Margaret, Elwood and Robert Hillis.

March Haynes, the only son, was born January 3, 1896, and continues to make his home in Kokomo, where he was reared and educated. March Haynes married, February 19, 1923, Miss Hazel Marie Carter, who died May 22, 1925. On June 18, 1928, he married Mrs. Esther Briggs, of Kokomo. They have a son, Elwood March Haynes, born November 17, 1929.

By Charles Roll, A.M.
The Lewis Publishing Company, 1931

EARL CLAYTON MCCOOL since 1922 has been enrolled as a member of the Howard County bar. He is one of the able men of the profession, well educated and with wide experience in general business as well as in the law. Mr. McCool is a native of Indiana and member of an interesting family of the state.

He was born at West Middleton, Howard County, December 27, 1899, son of Calvin G. and Nellie (Endicott) McCool. His ancestry runs back to Colonial times, and a conspicuous feature of the family record is the number of soldiers who have adorned it. Mr. McCool's mother was a descendant of John Endicott, who came to America from England in 1628. One of his mother's grandfathers was Price Odell, who was born in Indiana, in 1822, and lived to the age of ninety-three, passing away in 1915. Mr. McCool's maternal grandfather, Abner Madison Endicott, enlisted in the Union army at the age of fifteen. He served three years, took part in sixteen major engagements and was with General Sherman on the march to the sea. He died in 1926. He was wounded once, and two of his brothers were shot down by his side. In the paternal line Mr. McCool is a great-great-grandson of Col. William Heaton, a colonel in the War of 1812. The paternal grandfather, Jesse McCool, born in 1837, was a soldier in the Union army a year and six months. He died in 1877, as a result of the injuries received in action.

Calvin G. McCool also endeavored to emulate the example of his family and enlisted at the time of the Spanish-American war. On his arrival in camp at Indianapolis he had to divulge the fact that he was married, and since few married men were accepted during that brief war, he was released and sent home. Calvin G. McCool was born February 8, 1869, and lives at Kokomo. His wife was born in Howard County, August 31, 1871. Several of their sons were with the colors at the time of the World war. The oldest child, Mildred, born in October, 1893, spent three years in DePauw University and completed her musical education in the Indianapolis Conservatory, after which she taught music and art in high schools. She is the wife of Joseph Saunders, of Kokomo, and has two children, Robert, born in 1925, and Celia Ann, born in 1928. Victor McCool, the oldest son, born in May, 1895, spent three years at Indiana University, was a teacher for a year, and in April, 1917, enlisted, being put in Headquarters Company of the Sixtieth Artillery, and served overseas for ten months, being discharged in February, 1919. He is in the automobile business at Kokomo, and by his marriage to Margaret Bunch, of Tipton County, has a son, Richard, born in 1925. Glen McCool, who was born in October, 1897, studied electrical engineering at Purdue University and enlisted April 7, 1917, the day following America's declaration of war against Germany. He was assigned to Company C of the One Hundred and Thirteenth Engineers, was on duty overseas about ten months, and had been with the colors twenty- six months when he received his honorable discharge in July, 1919. He is a designing engineer. He married Lucile Smith, of Howard County, and has two daughters, Mary Ann, born in 1926, and Martha Ellen, born in 1928. Charlotte McCool, who was born in Clinton County, Indiana, March 12, 1903, is the wife of Thomas Bowland, a mechanical engineer with the Studebaker Company at South Bend, and has two sons, Thomas Franklin, born in 1925, and Jack, born in 1928. Harry Maxwell McCool, who was born in Clinton County, in May, 1905, is a salesman, married Helen Weger, of Howard County, and has a son, Harry Maxwell Jr., born in 1926, and a daughter, Carol Jean, born in 1929. The next child, Ernestine, was born in 1908, and died in May, 1920. Grace Louise, born in September, 1920, is married to William Hunley and lives in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Anna Jane, born in 1914, is a student in the Kokomo High School.

Earl Clayton McCool received his early education at Kirklin, in Clinton County, Indiana, and in 1917 was graduated from the high school of West Middleton, Howard County. The first important chapter in his experience was teaching school. He taught during the winter of 1917-18, and in March, 1918, followed the example of his brothers, enlisting in Battery C of the Fiftieth Artillery, Coast Artillery Corps. He held the rank of corporal and served six months overseas. He was honorably discharged February 28, 1919. In the meantime he had begun the study of law and in 1923 was graduated from the law department of Indiana University. In 1921 he was admitted to the bar of Monroe County and has been a member of the Howard County Bar Association since 1922. In January, 1923, he started practice at Kokomo. From June to November, 1926, he was in Chicago, managing an automobile sales agency, and later organized a collection department and sales work with the Bureau of Credits in Detroit, Michigan. In January, 1929, he resumed his general law practice at Kokomo, where his offices are at 410 Armstrong-Landon Building.

Mr. McCool has been active in the work of the American Legion. He was service officer of the post at Kokomo and from April, 1925, to June, 1926, was Naturalization Examiner in Chicago. He is a Republican, a member of the Masonic fraternity, B. P. O. Elks and Eagles, the college fraternities Sigma Nu and Phi Delta Phi, and is a Methodist.

Mr. McCool married, January 24, 1921, Miss Helen Hansell, of Kokomo. She was born October 10, 1901, daughter of Charles and Leona Hansell. They have two sons, Earl Clayton, Jr., born September 28, 1922, and Charles Calvin, born December 20, 1924.

By Charles Roll, A.M.
The Lewis Publishing Company, 1931

HON. JOHN E. FREDRICK, chairman of the board of directors of the Continental Steel Corporation, has for many years been a prominent Kokomo manufacturer. However, he was educated for medicine and practiced that profession for some time. Mr. Fredrick has not confined his influence altogether to business. At his own expense and without organized help from his party he has gone into politics and has been a candidate for the United States Senate and the governorship of Indiana chiefly for the purpose of educating the public to new and enlightened views on political issues.

Mr. Fredrick was born near New Pittsburg, Randolph County, Indiana, on a farm, October 27, 1865. His father, John P. Fredrick, who was born in Hesse Darmstadt, Germany, April 16, 1829, was twelve years of age when his parents came to America and settled in Darke County, Ohio, in New Madison. The mother of John E. Fredrick was Rebecca McFarland, who was born in Darke County, Ohio, March 14, 1833. Both the Fredrick and McFarland families moved from Western Ohio to Randolph County, Indiana, where John P. Fredrick and Rebecca McFarland met and were married in February, 1854. Later they returned to Darke County and settled near Castine in September, 1870.

It was in this locality that John E. Fredrick had his first school advantages. During 1888-89 he attended Heidelberg College at Tiffin, Ohio. During the summer of 1889 he began the study of medicine with his brother at Ridgeville, Indiana. This brother was the late Dr. G. W. Fredrick, who was born March 14, 1860, and died in 1928. There was also one daughter in the family, Flora Fredrick, who was born in 1855 and died in 1923.

John E. Fredrick in the fall of 1889 entered Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati and was a student there three years, graduating M. D. in April, 1892. He then joined his brother in the practice of medicine at Ridgeville, Indiana, but four years later, in 1896, moved to Kokomo and abandoned his professional work to become a manufacturer.

He was associated with two other men in manufacturing portable fence machines for weaving wire fence in the field. Mr. Fredrick in 1899 organized the Kokomo Wire & Nail Company, which took over the former business, and the organization was continued until 1901. Mr. Fredrick then organized the Kokomo Steel & Wire Company and in 1901-02 built at South Kokomo what is known as the South Plant of the Kokomo Steel & Wire Company. In 1913 was added to the South Plant a steel plate and rolling mill, which started operations in that year. This plant was finally merged with the Chapman & Price Steel Company of Indianapolis and the Superior Sheet Steel Company of Canton, Ohio, and since 1927 the plant has been operated under the ownership of the Continental Steel Corporation. Mr. Fredrick was general manager of all the plants until the time of the merger and since then has been chairman of the board of directors of the corporation.

Mr. Fredrick married, July 21, 1896, Miss Bessie Kitselman. Her father, Davis Kitselman, was a native of Pennsylvania, and her mother, Mahala Kitselman, was born in Indiana. The four children of Mr. and Mrs. Fredrick were all born in Kokomo and reside in that city. The oldest, Wanita, born August 27, 1897, was married, December 17, 1924, to Joseph R. Hughes, of Kokomo, and has a son, John Fredrick Hughes, born December 19, 1926. The three younger children are: Ruth Louise, born May 2, 1911; John P., born October 28, 1912; and Elizabeth (Bettie), born November 24, 1913.

For eight years Mr. Fredrick has been president of the Indiana State Chamber of Commerce and is president of the National Association of State Chambers of Commerce. He is a member of the Kokomo Chamber of Commerce, Kokomo Country Club, Rotary Club, the Congregational Church, chairman of the board of directors of the Union Bank & Trust Company, is a York Rite Mason, member of Murat Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Indianapolis, and belongs to the B. P. O. Elks. He took the lead in the first Kokomo Community Chest drive in 1929, and under his supervision the community oversubscribed the quota by approximately five thousand dollars.

Mr. Fredrick is a member of the Indiana Democratic party. He has come before the public in two important and heated campaigns, in one of which he was candidate for United States senator and in the other candidate for governor of Indiana. These campaigns were made entirely for educational purposes and Mr. Fredrick financed his own campaigns. His defeats were fortunate so far as he was personally concerned, since his business would have been materially sacrificed by the responsibilities of public office. He went into these campaigns partly for the opportunity it gave of criticising his own party's policies, and also for the broader purpose of enlightening the public as to the possibilities of political action for the benefit of the people as a whole instead of office seekers. He has the satisfaction of having achieved a large measure of success and of having gained his purpose. He has also made many lasting friends both in and out of politics, and his political opponents have come to realize the importance of his suggestions to the point of opening the way for them to be carried out to the benefit of the people of the state, which after all was the idea Mr. Fredrick had in mind and for which he was willing to expend his own time and money.

By Charles Roll, A.M.
The Lewis Publishing Company, 1931

HON. WILLIAM CURTIS ROLL, associate justice of the Supreme Court of Indiana, had, prior to his elevation to his judicial position, practiced his profession at Kokomo for eighteen years and his professional work and relations as a citizen have made him well known throughout Howard County and the state.

Judge Roll was born at Fredericksburg, Washington County, Indiana, August 29, 1884. His father, Thomas Roll, was born in Indiana, the Roll family having come to this state from North Carolina. Thomas Roll married Frances Adams, a descendant of the distinguished Adams family of Massachusetts. She was a daughter of Leander Franklin Adams, granddaughter of Aaron Adams and great- granddaughter of Samuel Adams. Leander F. Adams was born at Rutland, Massachusetts, from which place his father, Aaron, moved to Penfield, New York. Aaron Adams after the death of his wife migrated to Kentucky, taking a boat down the Ohio River. He was accompanied by his children. The youngest of them, an infant, was given away in Ohio since she could not be taken care of in the exigencies of this journey. Leander Franklin Adams grew up in Kentucky and from that state moved to Southern Indiana. He was twice married, and Frances was a daughter of his first wife. Thomas and Frances (Adams) Roll were the parents of seven children, Leander, George, Anna, Mary, Bertha, Albert and William Curtis. George E. Roll is a farmer, living near Fredericksburg, Indiana, and has two sons, John and Walter, and a daughter, Mary Frances. Thomas Albert Roll is a physician and surgeon, now located at Hilo, Hawaii, and has two children, Carroll A. and Elois. The daughter Bertha is the wife of Erastus Newby, a salesman in Indianapolis, and they have three sons, Thomas, Lawrence and Frank Newby.

Judge Roll was educated in the common schools of Fredericksburg, and completed his scientific and classical courses in the Central Indiana Normal College at Danville. Here he was graduated with the Bachelor of Science degree in 1907 and the Bachelor of Arts degree in 1909. This was followed by work in the law department of Indiana University, from which he was graduated LL. B. in 1912 and in the fall of the same year he located at Kokomo, where he rapidly built up a general practice and won a most favorable reputation as a lawyer. He has been interested in public affairs but held only one public office, prior to his service on the bench, that of county attorney of Howard County during the years 1913-14. Mr. Roll is a Democrat, is a member of the Primitive Baptist Church and the Masonic fraternity. He was elected a member of the supreme tribunal of the state in November, 1930, entering upon the discharge of his judicial duties in January, 1931.

He married, April 14, 1915, Miss Lois Polsom, of Orange County, Indiana, daughter of John Wesley and Mary Elta Folsom. They have three children: Elta Frances, born October 26, 1916; William Curtis, born September 5, 1923; and John Wesley, born May 9, 1925.

By Charles Roll, A.M.
The Lewis Publishing Company, 1931

CARL JOHN BROO, of Kokomo, is a very able lawyer, an attorney who has shown particular skill and capacity for handling the legal affairs of business corporations and organizations. Politics has not presented many attractions to him, but he has manifested an intelligent interest in the good government of his home locality and has been identified with a number of civic undertakings.

Mr. Broo has lived in Kokomo most of his life. He was born in Motola, Sweden, November 9, 1884, son of John F. and Christina (Rosenthal) Broo, natives of the same country. His parents came to America in 1893, locating at Kokomo on March 14 of that year. His father was born in 1857 and is now seventy-three years of age. His mother was born in 1859 and died April 15, 1926. Besides the Kokomo attorney the children included: Gus E. Broo, of Indianapolis; Axel N., of Kokomo; Victor, of Howard County, Indiana; Frank W., who lives in New York City, where he has charge of internal revenue collections; Hannah E. Geiger, widow of George Geiger; and Elsie Mara, wife of John Mara, of Chicago. .

Carl John Broo was nine years old when he came to the United States. He had been given some instruction in Swedish schools and began his American training in the public schools of Kokomo. As a young man he went into the building trade, became an erecting engineer, and this was work that called him to far distant localities and during the course of several years he worked in most of the states of this country and in Canada and in the Panama Canal Zone. He decided that the trade of erecting engineer did not offer sufficient opportunities to hold him permanently and in 1906 he enrolled as a law student in Valparaiso University of Indiana. He was graduated from the law department in 1910, and has had twenty years in which to work out a very satisfactory career as a member of the Indiana bar. His standing as a lawyer may be indicated by some of his professional connections. He is attorney for the city zoning board, representative of the Anspach Company, the National Sign Corporation, the Walton & Mackey Nail Company, The Western & Southern Life Insurance Company and many other business concerns.

Mr. Broo as a Democrat was elected a delegate to the Indiana state Democratic convention in 1928. He is a Knight Templar Mason, a member of Murat Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Indianapolis, and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. During the World war he was in the military training school at Camp Taylor, Kentucky, during 1918-19 and is a member of the American Legion.

Mr. Broo married, November 4, 1922, Miss Harriet Truax. She was born November 18, 1889, daughter of Thomas and Matilda (Seavers) Truax, both natives of Indiana. Her father died in 1894 and her mother in 1896. Her grandfather was Thomas Seavers, who was born in Virginia, in 1831, and lived to the great age of ninety-six years, passing away in 1927. Mr. Broo by a former marriage has two children, Carl L., born May 11, 1911, a student in medical school, Indiana University, and Margaret E., born December 3, 1912, a student in the Kokomo High School.

By Charles Roll, A.M.
The Lewis Publishing Company, 1931

GEORGE JOHN KAISER. The commercial activities and business interests of Kendallville, Indiana are large and important, and here may be found some of the most reliable as well as oldest concerns in Noble County. One of these, which was founded some sixty years ago and ever since has remained the property of one family, is Kendallsville's oldest and most extensive grocery, which is now owned and operated by George J. Kaiser, whose father established it. Mr. Kaiser has been a lifelong resident of Kendallville, and since his fifteenth year, has been connected with the grocery trade. He has always been an active citizen, is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, has served in responsible public offices, and encouraged many civic movements that have benefited Kendallville.

George J. Kaiser was born at Kendallville, August 21, 1873, a son of John and Magdalene (Hess) Kaiser. The father was born in Germany, in 1839, and she was born at Avila, in 1846, a daughter of one of the pioneers of Noble County, Indiana, and a native of Germany. John Kaiser was educated in Germany, but about 1862 came to the United States, and settled in Noble County, where his first employment was laying ties for the Lake Shore Railroad. Later he established the grocery now owned by his son, and continued to operate it until 1911, when he turned it over to his successor. He was a man of exemplary character, an excellent manager, and a citizen who stood deservedly high in popular favor. All his life he was a consistent member of the German Lutheran Church. Seven children were born to him and his wife, of whom five survive. His death occurred in 1912, but the wife and mother survived until 1923, when she, too, passed away.

Growing up in his native town, George J. Kaiser attended the common and high schools until he was fifteen years of age, at which time he began working in his father's grocery, and has been with it ever since. In political faith he is a Democrat, and he was elected on his party ticket treasurer of Kendallville, which office he held for one term.

In 1894 Mr. Kaiser was married at Kendallville to Miss Rose Baad, then of that city, but born in Ohio, March 20, 1873. Two sons were born of this marriage. Harold George, who was born May 31, 1898, was graduated from the Kendallville High School in 1918, and from the University of Indiana in 1925, with the degree of Bachelor of Science, and after some experience outside, since 1928 has been associated with his father in the grocery business, and he belongs to the national fraternity Sigma Alpha Epsilon. On October 22, 1930, he married Miss Mildred Agatha Bowers, of Toledo, Ohio. She is a graduate of the Toledo High School, Toledo University, University of California., and the Ohio State University. Prior to her marriage she was principal of the Girls Vocational School at Baltimore, Maryland. Walter Christ John, who was born February, 6, 1900, was graduated from the Kendallville High School in 1919, after which he attended the University of Indiana, for eighteen months, and also made Sigma Alpha Epsilon. On June 25, 1924, he was married to Miss Leota Blanche Daughtrey, of Marion, Indiana, but at the time of her marriage was a teacher in the public schools of Fort Wayne. She was a graduate of Madam Blaker's Kindergarten School of Indianapolis. She also attended Columbia University. They have one son, John Edwin, who was born December 21, 1927. Mrs. George J. Kaiser died April 13, 1918, and her passing caused almost universal sorrow, for she was a lady of beautiful character, devoted to her family, and a good friend and kind neighbor.

Not only does Mr. Kaiser represent the oldest grocery house of Kendallville, but his sons, both of whom are with him in the business, will take it over at his death, and continue its operation. However, it is their hope and that of his many friends that it will long remain under his masterly care, and that Kendallville will not have to mourn his loss for a very long period. He is a man, though, who believes in laying his plans for the future and has trained his sons so that they can continue the work that was begun by his father and continued and expanded by him.

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By Charles Roll, A.M.
The Lewis Publishing Company, 1931

WILLIAM L. BERRYMAN, a retired citizen of Tipton, has lived a long and useful career, all of it in his native State of Indiana, and has come to the age of ninety-one years with dignity and honor.

He was born in Marion County, Indiana, March 28, 1840, son of Sampson and Virginia (Royster) Berryman. His father came from Virginia and settled at Lexington, Kentucky, in the year 1814. William L. Berryman had a common school education, but all told scarcely more than three months. From an early age he was face to face with the necessities of existence in comparatively undeveloped country. He chopped cord wood in Cass and Tipton counties, worked on the farm, was employed in a saw mill and after eighteen months bought the mill and was a lumber manufacturer for twenty-seven years. His home has been in Tipton County since 1872. Mr. Berryman was elected and served a term as clerk of courts, after which he returned to his farm. On leaving the farm he built a comfortable home in Tipton, where he has enjoyed the years of his retirement.

In 1910 Governor Marshall appointed him inspector of oils, and he served in that position for nine years. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Improved Order of Red Men, and has been a Mason more than fifty years.

Mr. Berryman first married Catherine Diller, of Logansport. They had two children, one of whom is living, Mrs. Winona Nash. After the death of his first wife Mr. Berryman married Anna Rothgery, a native of Ohio. They have one child, Frances Virginia, who is now Mrs. Walter Kinder. The two grandchildren are Robert B. Kinder and Anna Margaret Kinder.

By Charles Roll, A.M.
The Lewis Publishing Company, 1931

Deb Murray