The earliest burial places were not in Mound cemetery, as is commonly supposed, but in a lot on the ridge south of the present Oak Grove cemetery, laid off by the Ohio Company when the settlement was first made. At this place was buried the first person who died in Marietta; Nathaniel Cushing's little daughter Nabby, who died on August 25, 1788. She was buried on the Rite where the house of the late Beman Gates stands. Here also was buried Judge Varnum, the second person who died in the settlement. There were several other persons buried in this locality prior to the breaking out of the Indian War in 1791, but during this war burials were not made here, but on the brow of the sand hill now dug off, just above Wooster street, on the line of Third street.
Captain Joseph Rogers who was killed on March 13, 1791, was buried in Third street, then unimproved. A daughter of Governor St. Clair, a son of Major Putnam, James Wells, wife and daughter, William Moulton and many others were also buried there. However, in 1839, the remains of most of these people were exhumed and re-interred in Mound cemetery, and in 1867 the remains of twenty-eight persons were removed to Oak Grove cemetery, and a granite monument erected to mark their last resting place. But as late as 1849 there were still some graves remaining back of Third street.
General Benjamin Tupper was buried under an apple tree in 1792, between Third and Fourth streets opposite the Quadranaou. At the same place was buried a child of Ichabod Nye, and afterwards Major Anselm Tupper. The remains of these persons were years afterward removed to the Mound cemetery.
The cemetery in Harmar is older than Mound cemetery, being laid out by the Ohio Company in 1796. From the journal of proceedings of the Company we learn that a resolution was passed that "there be also laid out three acres on the west side of the Muskingum river." Who was the first person to be buried in this cemetery is not known.
The site which is now known as mound cemetery was originally called "Marie Antoinette Square." It was made a burial place in 1800, and the first person buried in it was Colonel Robert Taylor, who died September 30, 1801.
The largest and perhaps the most enduring monument in this cemetery is the mound of which mention has just been made. It stands as a monument of a pre-historic race, and doubtless covers the skeleton of some noted person once a great ruler of that vast race which once dwelt on this land. It stands as a monument not only of a forgotten personage, but, also of a mighty race of which there is no absolute knowledge in history. Surrounding this ancient structure are the stones which mark the graves of the inhabitants of Marietta who lived here during the first half of the last century.
It is here where rest the remains of many of the pioneers of western civilization, the founders of the State, men of lofty character and great achievements. Although it was not the earliest burial place of Marietta, yet the fact of its historical mound and its stone monuments so aged that their inscriptions no longer proclaim the names of those who rest beneath them, makes it of peculiar interest in the history of Marietta.
After the cession of this square to the town by Rufus Putnam, in 1791, no formal action was taken by the corporation toward an establishment of a cemetery here until May 3, 1803, although it was made a burial place in 1800, and the first person buried in it was Col. Robert Taylor, who died on September 30, 1801. His grave is marked by the following inscription cut on a st.one monument.:
The second person buried here was Rev. Daniel Story, in 1804. His monument was erected seventy-four years after his death, with the inscription: "He was the first minister of Christ who came to labor in the vast field known as the Northwest Territory, excepting the Moravian missionaries."
In February, 1805, was laid to rest in this cemetery the remains of Co1. Ebenezer Sproat, the first sheriff of Washington county.
Joseph Lincoln was the next hero buried near the mound. On an old-fashioned tomb of sandstone is the following inscription, almost illegible:
In 1811 Ezra Putnam, the oldest of the pioneers, was buried here; in 1812, Gen. Joseph Buell.
The grave of Rufus Putnam is marked by a plain granite monument, with the following inscription:
Here also is the grave of Commodore Whipple, with a long inscription, as follows:
Another long inscription is that of Return J. Meigs, Jr., as follows:
Other graves of men of early note in Marietta were Ichabod Nye, Capt. Josiah Monroe, Dr. Cotton, Dr. Hildreth, David Everett, Nahum Ward, three generations of Woodbridges, Arius and Anselm Tupper, Caleb Emerson, Col. Mills, and many others. Many epitaphs upon the monuments are quaint and expressive of the characteristics of our forefathers.
What is now known as Oak Grove cemetery consists of 33 acres of land bought by the city of Judge Arius Nye in 1861. The site was selected by Dr. J. D. Cotton and C. F. Buell. The first persons interred here were two little children, and the first adult was Timothy Cone, who died April 24, 1864.
History of Marietta
by Thos. J. Summers, B.A.
The Leader Publishing Co., Marietta, Ohio
During the Indian War most all the people of Marietta lived in three different localities: the garrison at the "point," Campus Martius and Fort Harmar. These places were all guarded and protected as much as possible and offered the greatest safety from the Indians. Having noted the events of this war, it is interesting to see where these places were, how they were arranged and who were the families that lived at each.
The first dwelling houses in Marietta were erected at the "point" in a short time after the landing of the Pioneers. They all remained here til1 a road was cut through the forest, and Campus Martius was erected, which was commenced in a short time after the landing. At the breaking out of the war in 1791, there were about twenty houses at the "point." Soon afterwards several families came in from the country and erected additional houses. No block-houses or defenses of any kind had yet been built. The center of this area was lower than the banks of the river, and through this was a small stream which emptied into the Muskingum. There was a line of palisades set from the Muskingum easterly to the east side of Front street and from this point to the Ohio river; the enclosure was about four acres. There were two or three houses outside of the defenses, near the block-house and the Muskingum bank.
Immediately after the war began three block-houses were built: one on the Muskingum bank, at the western termination of the palisade, one in the northeast corner of the enclosure, one on the Ohio bank. The block-houses were mounted by sentry boxes, which were secured for the defense of the men when on guard. The upper story of number one was used for a school house a large portion of the time, while the lower story contained two or three families; the upper story of number two was used for families and the lower for a guard house; on block-house number three, on the Ohio bank, was posted a sentry every night, and occupied by Colonel William Stacey. The largest blockhouse in the garrison was number four, built in 1792, by a detachment of United States troops under Lieutenant Tillinghast and stood partly in and on the east side of Front street.
After the defeat of General St. Clair, the garrison was put under military law with Captain Jonathan Haskell in command. It was placed under the strictest discipline which produced some difficulty between the militia and the citizens. The gates were closed at the setting of the sun, and sentries were posted keeping anyone from passing in or out until sunrise the next morning. Many things might prevent the citizen from being within at sunset, and consequently several families moved out into homes near the garrison. One or two of the block-houses were provided with a small cannon, which was fired at the approach or appearance of Indians in the neighborhood, to put the people on their guard.
The names of the heads of the families in the garrison at the "point," with the houses in which they lived in the year 1792, were as follows:
No. 1. William Moulton, wife, two daughters and one son, Edmond. The father and son were among the forty-eight pioneers who first landed. Dr. Jabez True, whose name is prominent among the early settlers, boarded in this family and had his office near this dwelling.
No. 2. Captain Prince, wife and two children. They moved to Cincinnati after the war.
No. 3 . Moses Morse and wife. Mr. Morse owned four log houses standing side by side, and called "Morse's Row."
No. 4. Peter Nyghswonger, wife and two or three children.
No. 5. William Skinner and J. McKinley, who kept a. retail store in this building during the war.
No. 6. R. J. Meigs, Jr., wife and one child. Chas. Green in company with Mr. Meigs kept a store of goods in a part of this building.
No. 7. Hon. Dudley Woodbridge, wife and children. This building was a small block-house.
No. 8. This building was a store room built by Judge Woodbridge and occupied by him for several years.
No. 9. Captain Josiah Munroe, wife and two children.
Mr. Munroe was the second postmaster, appointed in 1795.
No. 10. Captain William Mills, wife and one child. He died soon after the war and his widow subsequently married Dr. True.
No. 11 and 12. Not known .
No. 13. Captain Jonathan Haskell who commanded the United States troops who were defending the settlement.
No. 14. Hamilton Kerr. After the death of his father and brother, his mother lived with him. He was a very actful and useful spy.
No. 15. Col. Ebenezer' Sproat, wife and daughter; and Commodore Abraham Whipple, wife and son. Col. Sproat's wife was a daughter of Mr. Whipple.
No. 16. Joseph Buell, wife and two children, with Levi Munsell and wife. This was the first frame building built in the Northwest Territory, and in it Buell and Munsell kept a tavern and boarding house.
No. 17. William Stacey, son of Col. Stacey, wife and two or three children. After the war he settled at Rainbow in Union township.
No. 18. Joseph Stacey, son of Colonel Stacey, wife and two or three children. He also went to Union township.
No. 19. James Patterson, wife and children .
No.20. Nathaniel Patterson, wife and children. He died with smallpox.
No. 21. Captain Abel Matthews, wife, and six children. His son, John, acted as a drummer to the garrison.
No. 22. Thomas Stanley, wife and three or four children. He went to Fearing township and was one of the first settlers of it.
No. 23. Eleazar Curtis, wife and several children. They afterwards went to Belpre township.
No. 24. A range of log cabins ,along the Ohio bank, built for the use of the laborers of the Ohio Company,and afterwards appropriated as barracks for the soldiers.
Block-house No. 1. Simeon Tuttle and family.
Block-house No. 2. In charge of Joseph Barker for two or three years.
Block-house No. 3. Colonel William Stacey and family.
Block-house No. 4. The United States troops, who kept a sentry, and assisted in guarding the garrison.
For this list of inhabitants, as well as those who lived at Campus Martius and Fort Harmar, we are indebted to Dr. Hildreth who has preserved them in his Pioneer History.
All these buildings have passed, away and been replaced with more substantial ones.
At Campus Martius was where most of the early inhabitants of Marietta lived, after it was erected. The most of the work on this fortification was done the first year of the settlement an account of which is given on page 58. At the first outbreak of the Indian War several improvements were made which are here, described. The first thing was to put the garrison under strict military discipline, by order of Governor St. Clair, as has been done with the one at the "point." The men were divided into squads, and called out to their posts at daylight. It was found that the watch towers on the roofs of the block-houses were at such an elevation as to render it inconvenient for the guards to ascend and descend at night in changing. Consequently, square bastions were substituted and erected on four posts sixteen feet high, at the corner of each block-house, into which the guards could enter from the upper story by a single step, through a door cut for that purpose. Around the inside ran a slight elevation onto which the guard stepped, and they were furnished with loop holes and embrazures for the discharge of guns. In the southwest and northeast bastions, was placed at small cannon, which was fired as an alarm, when Indians were discovered in the neighborhood. This same provision, it will be remembered, was made in the block-house at the "point."
Running from corner to corner of the block-house was a row of palisades sloping outwards. Twenty feet in advance of this was a row of very large thick pickets, set upright with gateways. A few feet in front of this was another defense made from the tops and branches of trees sharpened and pointing outwards, so as to make it very difficult for an Indian or enemy to enter.
Names of the heads of families who lived in Campus Martius during the period of the Indian War, and whose memory ought to be preserved:
Governor St. Clair, son and three daughters, who lived in the southwest block-house.
General Rufus Putnam, wife, two sons and six daughters. General Benjamin Tupper, wife, three sons and two daughters.
Honorable Wintrop Sargent, secretary of the territory.
Colonel Robert Oliver, wife, two sons and daughters. Thomas Lord, Esq., with two apprentice boys, Benjamin Baker and Amos R. Harvey.
Colonel R. J. Meigs, wife and son, Timothy.
R. J. Meigs, Jr., although he lived most of the time at the "point" garrison.
Colonel Enoch Shepherd, wife and nine children.
Charles Greene, wife and three children. Miss Sheffield, sister to his wife, lived with him.
Colonel Ichabod Nye, wife and two or three children.
Major Ezra Putnam, wife and two daughters.
Major Haffield White and son.
Joshua Shipman, wife and three children.
Captain Strong, wife, two sons and one daughter.
Captain Davis, wife and five children.
James Smith, wife and seven children.
John Russel, son-in-law of Smith.
Archi bald Lake, wife and three sons.
Eleazer Olney, wife and fourteen children.
Major Olney and two sons, Columbus and Discovery.
Ebenezer Corey and wife.
Richard Maxon, wife and several children.
James Wells, wife and ten children.
Major Coburn, wife, three sons and two daughters.
Joseph Wood, wife and one child.
Captain John Dodge, wife and two sons.
Robert Allison, wife and several children.
Elijah Warren, wife and one child.
Girsham Flagg, wife and several children.
Widow Kelly and four sons.
Among the single men were Major Anselm Tupper, Rev. Daniel Story, Thomas Hutchinson, William Smith, Gilbert Devoll, Jr., Oliver Dodge, Alpheus Russell, Thomas Corey, Benjamin Tupper and Azariah Pratt. There were a few other families whose names were not retained.
This fort was erected in 1785-6 on the right bank of the Muskingum, at its junction with the Ohio, by a detachment of United States troops under Major John Doughty. This fort was one of the inducements that led the early settlers to land at the mouth of the Muskingum, which fact has already been mentioned. The position of the fort was well chosen as it not only commanded the mouth of the Muskingum, but, owing to the curve in the Ohio, swept its waters for a considerable distance above and below the fort. This was the first military post built in Ohio, except Fort Laurens. The area of Fort Harmar was about three-fourths of an acre, and was surrounded by a wall made of large timbers, placed horizontally to the height of twelve or fourteen feet, and was 120 feet long. The bastions were constructed of large timbers set upright in the ground, fourteen feet high, fastened together with strips of timber. The outlines of these were also pentagonal; the fifth side opened into the area of the fort where there was a block-house.
The dwellings were built along the walls, and occupied by the private soldiers. Each barrack had four rooms, with a fire place, and afforded plenty of room for a whole regiment of men. The officers' houses were made of hewed logs and two stories high. The large house in the southeast bastion was used as a store house. From the roof of the barrack which stood next the Ohio there arose a square tower, from which ascended a flag staff, and in which was stationed a sentinel. There was an arsenal near the guard house where their powder was stored. The main gate was next the Ohio river, just about the mouth of the Muskingum.
Near the center of the fort was a well which could have been used in case of a siege. In the rear and to the left was an area of ground laid out by Major Doughty for a garden. This was cultivated by the soldiers and produced many vegetables. Peaches were planted, and in the second or third year produced fruit.
This fort was occup1ed by the troops of the United States till September, 1790, when they were ordered to Fort Washington, now Cincinnati. During the Indian War the barracks and officers' houses were occupied mainly by the Ohio Company settlers. Only a small detachment was stationed at the fort. The headquarters of a company of fifty was established at the fort after 1791, which gave confidence to the inhabitants during the war. Captain Haskell commanded most of the time and Lieutenant Morgan the remainder. The house in the southwest location was occupied by Paul Fearing, and all who were living here were safe from the Indians. No regular batteries were built in the fort, as it was not deemed necessary. The boats in the river were guarded by having a field piece mounted on a carriage and kept on the bank near the wall.
A good portion of this fort has been washed away by the inroad's of the rivers. The wasting of the banks has continued to widen the mouth until it has encroached upon this historical spot to a great extent. The site of this fort is at present marked by a monument erected by the Ohio Centennial Association upon which is carved the shape of the old fort. Before any clearings were made huge sycamore trees inclined over the shores thus narrowing and making more permanent the river banks, and may we not say that their removal has lessened the beauty from what it was with its banks beautified by large trees with graceful trunks and drooping branches.
Names of families living in and near Fort Harmar:
Hon. Joseph Gilman and wife.
B. I. Gilman, his son and wife, and two children.
Paul Fearing, who lived in the southwest block-house given him by Major Doughty.
Col. Thos. Gibson, the licensed Indian trader for Washington county. He was afterwards the first auditor of Ohio.
Hezekiah Flint, one of the 48 pioneers.
Gould Davenport, a single man.
Mrs. Welch and three or four children.
Preserved Seaman, wife and four sons.
Benjamin Baker, wife and one child.
George Warth, wife, five sons and two daughters.
Joseph Fletcher, who, after his marriage, settled in Gallia county.
Picket Meroin, who also settled in Gallia county.
Francis Thierry, wife and two children. He was a baker, and when the King of France was in the United States as an exile he passed through Marietta and visited Thierry's Bakery and bought several loaves of his bread.
Monsieur Cookie, French emigrant.
Monsieur LeBlond, another French emigrant.
Monsieur Shouman, wife and son.
Monsieur Gubbeau, another French emigrant.
The inhabitants being thus located in these three places felt safe during the war, compared with their possible condition if left to depend upon their huts and strength in numbers alone for protection. After the war many left these places of refuge and settled throughout the different parts of the Company's land. Some located in the minor settlements, some in the country, some in other purchases, but a large number in the town that had protected them during the years of great danger.
History of Marietta
by Thos. J. Summers, B.A.
The Leader Publishing Co., Marietta, Ohio
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