The career of Nathan W. Ader happily illustrates the fact that if a young man possesses the proper attributes of mind and heart, with the ability to direct the same in proper channels, he can attain for himself not only material success but gain an honored place among the factors that shape the destinies of communities. His life proved that true success in this world depends upon personal efforts and consecutive industry in the pursuit of some specific and honorable purpose; it also demonstrated that the road to positions of influence among men, whatever the relation of life may be, is open to all who may possess the courage to tread its pathway, besides serving as an incentive to the young of the present generation, teaching by incontrovertible facts that true excellence in any worthy undertaking is ambition's legitimate answer.

Mr. Ader was born in Putnam county, January 22, 1848; the son of David and Elizabeth (Aldridge) Ader, a complete sketch of whom is to be found in another part of this work. Mr. Ader was educated in the common schools and the Ladoga Academy, later attended Phillips Academy at Andover, Massachusetts. He was a very close student and received a splendid education and he always kept well abreast of the times in matters of not only current import, but also literary and scientific.

Believing that merchandising offered special inducements for him, he accordingly opened a dry goods store at Bainbridge, this county, in 1869, which he conducted in a very successful manner until 1879, becoming known during that decade as one of the leading merchants of this locality. In 1872 he erected a substantial brick block in Bainbridge.

In 1881 Mr. Ader went to Florida, remaining there several years, meeting with varied successes, returning to Putnam county at the death of his father. He later became the owner of a part of the old family homestead, which he placed under modern improvements and on which he erected a very attractive, commodious and nicely furnished residence, surrounded by a well-kept lawn, and standing at proper convenience are numerous substantial outbuildings. He kept some good stock of various kinds, being especially fond of good horses. There is a fine flowing well on the place. All in all, the farm is one of the most desirable in the township and it has been so well managed that its soil is as fertile as ever.

Mr. Ader married Mollie Nelson, daughter of a highly respected family, and she herself a lady of refinement and such engaging traits as to be a favorite with a large circle of friends. This union resulted in the birth of two children, namely: Lily R., born November 19, 1876, now living in South Dakota; Charles E., born May 11, 1870, and now living in California.

Mr. Ader's second wife was known in her maidenhood as Martha A. McKee, whom he married on November 18, 1883. She is the daughter of William and Lucinda (Yates) McKee, a fine old pioneer family. Mrs. Ader's grandfather, Samuel McKee, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and Mrs. Ader is a member of the noted organization, Daughters of the American Revolution. Her brother, Melvin McKee, was a circuit clerk of Putnam county for a period of eight years, during which time he won wide notoriety. Mrs. Ader is a well educated, refined and affable woman, who makes' friends readily and always retains their good will. Mr. Ader's death occurred suddenly, on May 10, 1910, at Indianapolis, while he was seated, resting, in a store in that city.

Mr. Ader, in his fraternal relations, was a member of the Free and Accepted Masons, Lodge No. 547, at Groveland, this county, having become a Mason in 1872, joining Bainbridge Lodge, No. 75. He filled all the offices from tyler up; he was also a Royal Arch Mason and had attained the degree of Knight Templar. He took an abiding interest in Masonry and stood high in its circles, which is criterion enough that he was a man of proper principles and that his neighbors and friends were justified in placing explicit confidence in him, without fear of having it betrayed.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Putnam county figures as one of the most attractive, progressive and prosperous divisions of the western part of the great Hoosier commonwealth, justly claiming a high order of citizenship and a spirit of enterprise which is certain to conserve consecutive development and marked advancement in the material upbuilding of this section. The county has been and is signally favored in the class of men who have controlled its affairs in official capacity, and in this connection James P. Hughes, one of the best known attorneys of this section of the state, demands representation, as he is serving this county faithfully and well in a position of distinct trust and responsibility, being an active, vigilant and potent factor in the local body politic. While yet a young man he has achieved a brilliant record at the bar, at the same time winning a reputation for industry and integrity. He is a close student, solidly entrenched in the principles, routine, technicalities and the complicated machinery of the law, careful, painstaking and conscientious, his creed being that professional success depends on work-hard, unremitting, indefatigable work. He always stands upon a logical outlook; is a reasoner, dissector and analyst, and to such as he the future augurs much in the way of success and honor; yet with all his ability he is entirely unassuming.

In the early part of the last century, among the many conscientious and liberty-loving people who came to this country to escape the intolerable civil and religious conditions of Ireland, there was a boy named Peter Hughes. When he first came to this country he worked as a stone-mason on the National road, which was then being built through this county, and many of the fine arches which are yet standing were partly the work of his hands. He later settled on a farm about six miles east of the city of Terre Haute, and at the time of his death, in 1893, was the owner of the valuable tract of land upon which he had lived for many years. He married Ellen Dickerson, a daughter of one of the early pioneers of Vigo county, who was a native of Ohio. The Dickerson family was prominent in Vigo county and had much to do with the making of its history. Eleven children were born to Peter and Ellen Hughes and of these eleven, one was named George W., who was born in 1846.

George W. Hughes, at the age of seventeen years, enlisted as a soldier in the Eleventh Indiana Cavalry and the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment. He served until the close of the war and at the time of his discharge was first lieutenant. In 1869 he was married to Hessie Ferrel, daughter of James and Nancy Ferrel, who at that time lived near Cloverdale, this county. James Ferrel was a native of Ohio. He came to this state, in the early part of the last century, with his parents, who settled near Terre Haute.

Nancy Ferrel is a daughter of John P. Sinclair, one of the pioneers of this county, who came here from Kentucky in 1823 and that year Nancy Sinclair Ferrel was born on what is now known as the Frank Allee farm in Warren township, and which is located about two and one-half miles north of Cloverdale. Mrs. Nancy Ferrel is still living and resides part of the time with her daughter, Hessie Hughes, on the Hughes farm north of Cloverdale and within one mile of the spot where she was born eighty-seven years ago. She is no doubt the oldest native-born citizen of this county.

After the marriage of George W. Hughes and Hessie Ferrel they went to housekeeping on what is now known as the Hulman farm just east of Terre Haute. They lived in Vigo county until 1875, at which time they moved to Putnam county and located on a farm three miles south of Cloverdale. In 1880 Mr. Hughes bought a large tract of ground one and one-half miles north of Cloverdale and resided on this farm until 1893. In November, 1892, he was elected treasurer of Putnam county and re-elected in 1894. He served as treasurer from September, 1893, to January, 1898. Mr. Hughes was one of the most popular and efficient officers Putnam county ever had and was widely known as a man of honor and integrity. After he retired from office he moved to his farm and lived there for a few years and again moved to Greencastle and died here on the 9th day of April, 1905, leaving as his heirs, Hessie Hughes, his widow; and Minnie W., wife of D. B. F. Hurst; Curtis K., assistant cashier of the Central National Bank; James P., whose name forms the heading of this article; Forest, who has a position with the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company; and, Birch, who is a student in DePauw university.

James P. Hughes was born in Vigo county, December 18, 1873, and spent his youth on his father's farm near Cloverdale. After obtaining a good primary education, he entered DePauw University, from which he was graduated in 1898 with the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy. Shortly afterward he became a student in the Indiana Law School and was graduated from this institution with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. It is thus seen that Mr. Hughes has a thorough training for his profession. In October of 1900 he was admitted to the bar of Putnam county and immediately entered into the active practice of his profession, to which he has since devoted himself exclusively. In March, 1902, the county commissioners appointed him court attorney, which position he held for three years. From 1905 to 1907 he was deputy prosecutor under Prosecuting Attorney Curtis G. Scofield and he was elected prosecutor for the thirteenth judicial circuit in November, 1906, and re-elected in November, 1908, by the largest majority that any candidate for prosecutor of this district had ever had up to that date, which fact testifies to the popularity of Mr. Hughes as an officer. His term of office will expire January 1, 1911.

In April, 1908, Mr. Hughes formed a partnership for the practice of law with John P. Allee, under the firm name of Allee & Hughes. This firm is known as one of the strong legal firms of this community and it has a large and extensive practice. Mr. Allee and Mr. Hughes are both recognized as strong and able lawyers.

On January 17, 1907, Mr. Hughes was married to Mayme Gainer, daughter of John Gainer, deceased, and a native of Greencastle. She is a charming woman in the home, and is also a woman of business ability, having for four years held the position of deputy auditor under County Auditor C. C. Hurst. Mr. and Mrs. Hughes have one child, James G., who was born May 21, 1909. Mr. Hughes is a member of the Methodist church and Mrs. Hughes belongs to the Catholic church. He is a member of the Masonic order, the Elks and Knights of Pythias and has held the highest offices in these orders. He also belongs to the Delta Upsilon fraternity, a college order, and in politics is an enthusiastic Democrat.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Among those citizens of Marion township, Putnam county, who have, by lives of persistent and well-directed effort, not only achieved a definite measure of material success, but, what is of greater value, have gained the respect and confidence of their fellow men, the subject of this sketch is conspicuous.

Gilbert Sinclair was born on the 23d day of April, 1840, on his father's farm situated where the town of Fillmore now stands, and is a son of Richard and Katherine (Hedden) Sinclair. These parents were natives of Shelby county, Kentucky, but came to Indiana in 1840, and bought eighty acres of land, comprising the farm above referred to, and for which he paid five dollars per acre. Here he established his pioneer home in a log cabin and vigorously applied himself to the development of the new farm, which was in many respects a strenuous task. He had in his native state learned the trade of a wheelwright and this practical knowledge stood him in good stead in his new home, his services in this capacity being of great value to many in the surrounding country. In 1850 the Vandalia railroad was surveyed through his farm and, not liking the proposition, he sold the land, for ten dollars per acre. He then bought one hundred and ten acres of land adjoining his former farm, for which he paid the same price per acre, the place being well improved with good buildings. Subsequently, as he was prospered, he bought other adjoining land, until eventually his land holdings amounted to three hundred and twenty acres. He was a man of many excellent qualities of head and heart and he enjoyed in a large degree the respect of all who knew him. His death occurred in 1899 and his wife died in 1895, their remains being interred in the Fillmore cemetery, which land was donated by Mr. Sinclair for cemetery purposes. Mr. and Mrs. Sinclair were members of the Baptist denomination, belonging to the Salem church, near Fillmore. Politically Mr. Sinclair was an ardent Democrat. These parents had five children, namely: Gilbert, the subject of this sketch; Mary F., the deceased wife of W. H. Cowgill; Emily died young; James W. and Marion, who also are deceased.

Gilbert Sinclair was reared on the parental farmstead and secured a good practical education in the common schools. At the time of his marriage, in 1860, he went to housekeeping in a log house on his father's farm, and he has throughout his life devoted himself to the cultivation of the soil, in which he has met with a gratifying degree of success. His first purchase was forty acres, and in 1875 he purchased a forty-acre tract adjoining, onto which he moved. His energy and determination were rewarded as the years passed and he eventually became the owner of a large and valuable farm. He has given to each of his children a farm and there still remains in the home farm four hundred and fifty acres of as good land as can be found in this part of Putnam county. Mr. Sinclair has carried on general farming and has also given considerable attention to the raising of livestock, which also he has found a profitable line. Mr. Sinclair has long occupied a leading place in the community and he has served as administrator in the settlement of a number of estates and as an arbitrator in the settlement of disputes between fellow citizens.

Politically Mr. Sinclair gives an ardent support to the Democratic party, while in religious matters he gives a liberal support to all churches, having contributed to the erection and support of several.

On March 29, 1860, Mr. Sinclair was united in marriage to Susan Kinsler, a daughter of Thomas and Rebecca Kinsler, of this county, and to this union have been born two children, namely: Richard R. and John. Richard R., who resides on a fine farm of one hundred and five acres in Marion township, received a good public school education, after which he attended two years each at the State Normal and the Danville Normal Schools, after which he engaged in teaching, being now employed in the schools of Greencastle. He is a member of the Christian church at Fillmore. 0n October 14, 1887, he married Lizzie Campbell and they are the parents of two children, Courtland C. and Irene. Courtland graduated from the high school at Greencastle, and is now a student at DePauw University. John, after completing the common school course, attended two years each at the State and Danville Normals, and is now devoting himself to the cultivation of his farm of fifty acres, adjoining the old homestead. On August 4, 1904, he married Laura Browning, of Montgomery county, this state, and they have two children, Helen and Paul G. Besides the children mentioned Mr. and Mrs. Sinclair reared Cora B. Flynn, aged four years, a niece of Mrs. Sinclair, and she has been a member of the family for thirty years, receiving the same care and affection accorded to their own children.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

The founder of this family in America was William Torr, who came from England and settled in Virginia. His son, of the same name, migrated to Kentucky where he became a farmer, married and reared a family. His son, William, was born in Shelby county, Kentucky, where he married Maria Kimberlin and in 1838 came to Putnam county. He located on land in Washington township, one mile south of the present homestead. James Torr, a brother of William, followed the latter to Putnarn county some years after his arrival, later went to Ohio, married and then came back to Putnam county and entered eighty acres of land. He cleared and cultivated this tract, but later bought the farm in Madison township which became his well known homestead. William Torr died in December, 1842, leaving his widow with six children, the eldest fifteen years old. The widow remained on the farm, where she reared her children. She was a fine business woman, quick witted and well read. She was a member of the Baptist church, having joined in Kentucky, and was broad-minded and liberal in her views, refusing to believe that part of the human race was created to be saved and part lost. She lived a widow for thirty years and died at the age of eighty years with her mind clear to the last. Nancy, eldest of her children, married John Rawley, father of the district judge of the same name. She spent most of her life in Clay county, but is now living with a son, Frank S., ex-judge at Terre Haute. James H. was William Torr's second child; the third was America, who married Alfred Miller, of Parke county, and died at the age of sixty-six years; Eliza, the fourth child, married Benjamin Leatherman and removed to Humboldt, Nebraska, where she still resides in aged widowhood; Niles H., who was a soldier, died in Parke county when forty years old.

William L. Torr, youngest of the family, was born in Madison township, Putnam county, Indiana, March 1, 1839. He remained with his mother until thirty-four years old and from his sixteenth year had charge of the farm. When twenty-six years old he married Ellen, daughter of Volney Smith, of Manhattan, whose father came to the county when a boy, was appointed postmaster at Manhattan and was the oldest postmaster in the state at the time of his death. Mr. Torr by degrees bought out the interests of the heirs in one hundred and sixty acres of the home place and when his mother died he bought the entire estate of two hundred and forty acres, of which he still retains one hundred and seventy-five acres. He has made a fine farm of the place which as a boy he helped to clear. Seventy acres of his holdings consist of fine bottom lands. Mr. Torr has always been a general farmer, raising the cereal crops appropriate to this section and keeping as much stock as his land would justify. He feeds all his own grain and makes a specialty of hogs, of which he fattens a large number for market every year. He has devoted his whole life to his farm, expended on it much thought and labor and has made a success and ranks high among the best farmers of Putnam county. His father was a Whig and he himself has been a lifelong Republican, casting his first vote for Abraham Lincoln. He has always enthusiastically supported the principles of the Republican party and for twenty years served on the election board. His first wife died February 13, 1893, and on September 1, 1896, Mr. Torr married Mrs. Mary A. Cochran, nee Neier, of Owen county. Mr. Torr's children by his first wife are as follows: William V., a resident of Washington township, has three children, Lola, Lela and Dorothy; Maggie married Albert Stoner, of Sullivan county, and has two children, Russell and Estel; Anna M., educated at the Terre Haute Normal and Danville Normal, taught for thirteen years in Putnam county, including several terms in the Greencastle schools, and died September 12, 1909, aged thirty-eight years; Arthur D., a resident of Farmersburg, Indiana, has five children, Raymond, Stanley, Donald, Frances and Helen; Minnie, a graduate of DePauw University, has for six years been a teacher of history in the Connersville high school; Ross, a resident of Farmersburg, has three children, Irene, Glenn and Gladys Marie: Emma married J. H. Pitchford, telegraph operator for the Big Four railroad at Fillmore, Indiana, and has two children, Minnie Almeda and Mildred Ellen; Edwin, on the farm with his father, married Martha Best and has two children, Margaret Ellen and Mabel Grace. Mr. Torr has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Mt. Olive for fifty years, and has always taken an interest in religious work. With the exception of Philip Hutcheson, Mr. Torr has lived longest of any man in this vicinity. He is a fine type of the best class of the old-time citizen and understands the farming business from the ground up. During his long life he has proven himself a dutiful son, a kind neighbor and true friend, fulfilling all duties both public and private.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Few pioneers of this vicinity so indelibly impressed their personalities upon their fellow men or did more for the general uplift of Putnam county than the late Isaiah Vermilion, who was duly honored and respected by all who knew him for his long life of industry and straightforward dealings with his fellow men, and it was a rare treat to visit his hospitable fireside during his last years and listen to his interesting reminiscences of the past history of this locality which he saw and helped develop from practically a wilderness to one of the thriving communities of the great commonwealth, of Indiana. He was born five miles northwest of Greencastle, December 2, 1838, the son of Joe1 and Nancy (Shaw) Vermilion, the father a native of Tennessee, from which state he came to Putnam county, Indiana, as early as 1830. He was a minister of the Baptist church, in which noble work he became known to all the old settlers, and he did not collect a penny for his services, being one of those few and noble spirits who delight to serve others even at the expense of their own interests. His death occurred in 1873, his widow surviving until December 1, 1874. They were the parents of a large family, rearing eight children to maturity.

Isaiah Vermilion farmed until he was nineteen years of age, gaining a somewhat limited education in the schools of his day. He started on his business career with only twenty-five cents, and, by thrift, industry and economy, he accumulated rapidly and his latter years were spent in comfort and in the midst of such life's luxuries as he desired. He began the dry goods business with his brother, Thomas, in 1857, under the firm name of Vermilion Brothers, in Mt. Meridian, just half way between Terre Haute and Indianapolis, on the National road. This was a successful venture, but, desiring a broader field for his operations, Mr. Vermilion came to Greencastle in 1868 and embarked in business, buying an interest with Seese & Elliott, the firm then changing to Seese, Elliott & Vermilion, which met with varied success until 1871, when Wilds Jones purchased the holdings of Seese and Elliott, the firm then changing to Vermillion & Jones. In 1875 J. P. Allen purchased the interest of Mr. Jones, then the style of the firm was Vermilion & Allen, the former selling out in his interest to the latter in 1879. In that year he opened business in South Greencastle with W. H. Howe as Howe & Vermilion. In 1881 Nelson Wood bought Mr. Howe's interest and in 1883 Mr. Vermilion sold out to Mr. Wood. In that year he re-engaged in the dry goods business at No. 22 West Washington street, where he remained with his usual success until his death, which occurred September 5, 1908, having been engaged in business in one place for a period of twenty-five years consecutively. He was one of the best known merchants in this and adjoining counties and his customers were his friends owing to his uniform kindness and his honesty in dealing with everyone.

Mr. Vermilion was a noted church worker and the local Baptist congregation owed much to his liberality of both means and time in forwarding the interest of the church, always taking a delight in its affairs. Being an earnest worker, he held all the offices in the church and he never missed a meeting. He carried his religion into his business and his every-day life and his genuine honesty and sincerity was never questioned. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity and he was a Democrat in politics, but never sought office.

Mr. Vermilion married, on January 12, 1865, Caroline E. Elliott, daughter of McCamy and Harriett (Sherrel) Elliott. She was born in Putnam county, October 12, 1847. Her parents came from North Carolina; her father, also, was a Baptist minister; he lived to the advanced age of ninety-six years, dying February 15, 1906, his wife having preceded him to the grave on December 24, 1892.

Mrs. Vermilion was called to her rest in 1893. She was an excellent woman and took a great interest in religious affairs. Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Isaiah Vermilion, four of whom are deceased; those living are, Miss Claude, of Greencastle; James E., of Greencastle, and Flossie, wife of Charles Haughland, of Greencastle.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Some of the best improved farms in Putnam county are to be found in Monroe township, the owners of which are men of indefatigable industry, practical ideas and progressive methods. Among the successful agriculturists of the township is numbered the gentleman whose name appears at the head of this sketch. He has by his earnest and consecutive efforts brought his farm to a high standard of excellence and is looker1 upon as one of the reliable citizens of the township.

Thomas J. McKeehan was born in Whitley county, Kentucky, November 3, 1862, and is a son of Peter and Lida (Hart) McKeehan. He was reared and educated in his native County, his education being obtained in the common schools. He was engaged successfully in teaching school there for a time, and in 1886 he came to Putnam county, where he has since resided. He and his wife are the owners of one hundred and seventy acres of fine and fertile land, eligibly located, and on which are raised all the crops common to this section of the country. This land was inherited by Mrs. McKeehan from her father, the late Jacob Huffman, one of the prominent and well-known old pioneers of the county. The farm contains many excellent improvements, including a comfortable and attractive residence, a commodious and well arranged barn and other necessary outbuildings, while the well kept fences and other improvements indicate Mr. McKeehan to be a man of excellent taste and sound judgment.

On January 22, 1893, Mr. McKeehan was united in marriage with Alice Huffman, a daughter of Jacob and Sarah Ellen (Stadler) Huffman, and to them have been born four children, namely: Frederick, born September 27, 1895; Paul, born January 29, 1897; Frank T., born July 26, 1900; Lawrence, born August 17, 1905.

In politics Mr. McKeehan gives a stanch support to the Republican party and takes an active interest in local public affairs, though not a seeker after public office. Religiously he and his wife are members of the Christian church, to which they give an earnest and liberal support. Fraternally he is a member of Bainbridge Lodge, No. 7; Free and Accepted Masons, of which he is a past master. Possessing marked social qualities, he easily makes acquaintances and wherever known he has many warm personal friends, who respect him for his genuine worth.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

This is an age in which the farmer stands pre-eminently above any other class as a producer of wealth. He simply takes advantage of the winds, the warm air, the bright sunshine and the refreshing rains, and, applying his own hands and skill to nature's gifts, he creates grain, hay, livestock, etc., all of which are absolute necessaries to the inhabitants of the world. The commercial world has come to realize his importance and has surrounded him with many conveniences not thought of fifty years ago. The inventor has given him the self-binder, the riding plow, the steam thresher, and many other labor-saving devices. And the farmer has not been slow to take advantage of the improvements thus offered. Among the up-to-date farmers of Putnam county is the subject of this review, who resides in a comfortable and attractive home in Floyd township.

Aaron Jent was born July 10, 1849, and is a son of Lemuel and Elizabeth (Connor) Jent, who were natives of the state of Kentucky, where they were reared and married. Subsequently they came to Putnam county, Indiana, being numbered among the early pioneers of this locality. The father died on March 4, 1859, and the mother on June 1, 1903. They became the parents of eleven children, of whom but six now survive, namely: John, Mary, Mrs. Ann Perkins, Mrs. Susan Coverdell, Aaron, the subject, and Louisa E., who, with the subject, occupies the old homestead.

Aaron Jent was reared under the parental roof and secured his education in the common schools of the locality, the schools of that early day being far inferior in many respects to those of today. He was early inured to the labors of the farm and has devoted practically his entire life to agriculture, in which he has been fairly successful. He and his sister Mary are now residing on a fine farm of one hundred and eighty acres in Floyd township, they having inherited this land from their mother. They have applied themselves assiduously to its cultivation and have maintained the place at a high standard of excellence. Mr. Jent has been a hard working man and has made many permanent and substantial improvements on the place, not the least of which is a comfortable and attractive residence, which has recently been completed and which contains many modern conveniences and which is considered one of the best homes in the community.

Politically Mr. Jent gives a stanch support to the Democratic party, but is in no sense a seeker after public office, preferring to devote his attention to his business affairs. He is a man of splendid parts and stands high in the estimation of his neighbors and acquaintances.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Among the members of the older generation of farmers in Putnam county, Indiana, none occupy a higher standing in their community than the gentleman whose name appears at the head of this sketch. Long residence here has but served to strengthen the hold which he has enjoyed for many years in the hearts of those who know him and now, in the golden sunset of his life, he is enjoying the rest which his former years of toil have so richly entitled him to.

Elijah Cooper Waln is a native of the old Buckeye state, having first seen the light of day in Highland county, Ohio, on March 7, 1838. He is a son of John and Martha (Wilkinson) Waln. The father was a native of Virginia and was a pioneer settler in both Ohio and Indiana, coming to the latter state in 1839 and locating in Putnam county, where he took up the pursuit of agriculture, in which he was engaged up to the time of his death, which occurred in August, 1889; his wife died in August, 1892. Politically he was first a Whig and on the dissolution of that party he became a Republican to which party he gave an earnest support. His religious membership was with the Christian church, in the various activities of which he took a prominent part. To John and Martha Waln were born the following children: Samuel, who died in infancy; Elizabeth, born February 19, 1836, who became the wife of Allen Huffman, of Hamilton county, Ohio; Elijah C., the subject of this sketch; Mary J., born January 23, 1833 is the wife of John S. Black and lives at Bainbridge, this county.

Elijah C. Waln received his education in the schools of Floyd township, where he has resided continuously since coming to Indiana - in fact, he has never lived more than one and a half miles from the spot where his parents first located in this county. The school house in which he studied, and to which he was compelled to walk three miles, was built of logs and was furnished in the typical style of that period, the furniture consisting mainly of puncheon seats and a rude desk for the teacher. But the lessons were well learned there, despite the unfavorable surroundings and Mr. Waln laid there the foundation for a good fund of information, being now considered a well informed and intelligent man. He early became an assistant to his father in the work of the farmstead and he wisely concluded that in husbandry lay his life work. At the age of twenty-three years he bought sixty-one acres of land, to the cultivation of which he devoted his energies with such success that he was enabled to buy other land until at one time his estate aggregated two hundred and forty-two acres. He has since disposed of some land, being now the owner of one hundred and sixty acres, which is most eligibly located, a magnificent view of the surrounding country being possible from the homestead. The latter is a comfortable and attractive brick building, located on a pretty knoll, and about it there is an air of comfort and a spirit of hospitality is ever there in evidence. Mr. Waln gives his attention to general farming operations and stock raising, in both of which lines he has been successful to a gratifying degree.

During the Civil war Mr. Waln gave practical evidence of his patriotic spirit by enlisting in the Seventy-eighth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with which he served sixty days, his services consisting mainly of picket duty. He keeps alive his old army associations by membership in the Grand Amy of the Republic, belonging to the post at Bainbridge, of which he has served as junior commander.

In politics Mr. Waln renders a stanch allegiance to the Republican party, as did his father before him, and he has at all times evinced a commendable interest in local public affairs, in which he has played an influential part, though never a seeker after official honor.

Mr. Waln has been married twice, first on January 8, 1862, to Mary R. Coffman, the daughter of Nicholas and Lavina (Dicks) Coffman, natives of Kentucky. To this union have been born nine children, of whom seven are dead, namely: Samuel, Marguerite (widow of Joseph M. Case, who died April 17, 1906, leaving two daughters), Bessie, Mattie, Olive, Grace, John, Leonard and Mary. The mother of these children, who was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, died on November 26, 1894, and on the 20th of April, 1898, Mr. Waln married Rebecca J. Davis, of Hamilton county, Ohio, there being no children by the last marriage. Mr. Waln's life has been characterized by high ideals, strict integrity, indomitable industry and amicable relations with all, being thus deserving of the respect and esteem which is universally accorded him throughout the community.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

An enterprising farmer and representative citizen of Putnam county is John Huffman, who is known as a man who, in all business affairs, is energetic, prompt and notably reliable, justice having ever been maintained by him in his relations with his neighbors and all others with whom he has had transactions, and while he has been watchful of his business and of all indications pointing to prosperity along his chosen line of work - agriculture and stock raising - his efforts resulting in the acquirement of a very satisfactory competence; yet this has not been alone the goal for which he has striven, for he belongs to that class of representative American citizens who promote the general prosperity while advancing individual interests.

John Huffman was born in Putnam county, Indiana, March 26, 1868, the son of Jacob and Sarah Ellen (Stadler) Huffman. A sketch of these parents is to be found elsewhere in this volume.

John Huffman attended the common schools in Floyd and Monroe townships, receiving a very good education. He worked on the home farm during the summer months and thus learned how to manage crops while a very young man, and having followed this line of work all his life he now finds himself very comfortably fixed in reference to material affairs. He now owns over two hundred and sixty acres of first-class land in Monroe township, the vicinity where the Huffmans have so long resided; his land has been very highly improved and from it abundant harvests are reaped from year to year. It is well fenced, drained and is kept clean and always attracts the attention of the passerby. He has a well located, modern and comfortable dwelling and substantial and numerous outbuildings, together with the latest improved farming machinery.

Mr. Huffman is well known as a stock breeder and raiser, always keeping some excellent stock on hand which finds a ready market owing to its excellent quality, for he certainly understands every detail of the stock business as is evidenced by his continued success in handling stock for many years.

On September 26, 1894, Mr. Huffman married Mary Buis, daughter of George W. and Polly (Patterson) Buis, a well known family of this township, where they came from the state of Kentucky, of which they were natives. To Mr. and Mrs. Huffman two children have been born, namely: Walter A.' s birth occurred on June 2, 1896; he is attending school at Bainbridge; John Morris was born June 22, 1906. Mr. Huffman is a Democrat and he takes more or less interest in the affairs of his party. It one time he served very acceptably as county road supervisor.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Reared to the sturdy discipline of the homestead farm, during all the succeeding years of his life John H. Nichols has not wavered in his allegiance to the great basic art of agriculture. To the public schools he is indebted for the early educational privileges which were his, and he duly availed himself of the same, while he has effectively broadened his knowledge through active association with men and affairs in practical business life which has placed him well in the front rank of citizens of Marion township, Putnam county.

John H. Nichols was born October 10, 1863, and is a son of Harvey and Jemima (Clark) Nichols. His paternal grandparents were Adam and Anna Nichols, who came to Putnam county about 1830 and built a log cabin on an eighty-acre tract of land which he had entered. This land he cleared and eventually developed into a good farm, the tract lying about a half mile northwest of Mount Meridian, Marion township. Here they continue to make their home in the old log house, depriving themselves of the comfort of a more modern house that they might be better able to contribute to the building of churches and other religious and charitable objects. Adam Nichols died at the age of seventy-seven years and his wife at the age of fifty years, their remains being laid to rest in the family burying ground at Mount Camel, this county. They were the parents of seven children, namely: Harvey, Margaret, Elizabeth, Henry, Anderson, Martin and Samuel.

Harvey Nichols was reared under the paternal roof and began his active life on his own account on a rented farm, which he continued to operate until near the close of the Civil war, when he offered his services to his country, remaining in the army until the close of the struggle. On his return home he bought a lifetime right in a forty-acre farm and engaged in its cultivation. His earthly career was, however, cut short, his death occurring at the early age of thirty-seven years, in 1871. His widow, in 1879, became the wife of Leonard H. Fortune, of this county.

John H. Nichols spent the years of his youth and young manhood on the parental farmstead, receiving his education in the common schools. On the death of his father the management of the farm devolved upon the subject and his mother. Subsequently he bought his mother's interest in the farm, on which he has continued to engage in farming and stock raising, in which he has uniformly met with the most gratifying success. He has acquired the ownership of adjoining land and now has one hundred and ninety acres of as good land as can be found in the township. The place contains improvements of a high order, comprising a modern and attractive residence, substantial barn and outbuildings and well-kept fences, the general appearance of the place indicating the owner to be a man of good judgment and taste.

On March 31, 1886, Mr. Nichols was united in marriage to Nancy Catherine Arnold, a daughter of James and Sally Ann Arnold, and they have become the parents of the following children: Ira U., who married Nellie Zeiner, and they have one child, Orla Glenn; Della O. is the wife of Elisha Zeiner, a farmer in Floyd township; Ada E., Harvey C. and James Russell are at home. Religiously, Mr. and Mrs. Nichols are members of the Christian church and he is a member of the official board of the same, being a deacon, and also secretary and treasurer. In every avenue of life's activities in which he has engaged Mr. Nichols has performed his full part and because of his splendid personal qualities he holds the confidence of all who know him.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

The science of agriculture - for it is a science as well as an art - finds an able demonstrator as well as a successful practitioner in the person of John W. Hanks, who is widely known in central Putnam county, both as an up-to-date agriculturist and a saw-mill and lumber man. He comes of a well known and highly honored pioneer family, a detailed history of which is to be found on another page of this volume, under the caption of Alvin B. Hanks, brother of John W., of this review, hence it is deemed unnecessary to repeat the latter's genealogy here.

John W. Hanks was born in Kentucky, November 22, 1844, and came to this vicinity with his father in the fall of 1851, when seven years old. He was soon put to school in the subscription school, held in the old log schoolhouse nearby and gained there the rudiments of an education which has since been considerably supplemented by general reading and observation. His first schooling was gained at Mechanic's Point, and later he attended the old Hopewell school. He worked on the parental farm during the major part of the year and thus learned the basic principles of agriculture early in life, and he has continued to follow the independent life of the husbandman. Prospering as the years advanced, he is now the owner of an excellent farm of two hundred acres, the original old homestead of his father, which he has brought to a high state of improvement and development and on which stands a substantial, large dwelling and such modern outbuildings as to meet all his requirements. He was formerly in the saw-mill business for a period of twenty years, during which time he sawed an immense amount of hardwood lumber throughout this section of the state and became widely known and fairly successful in this line of work. His locations while thus engaged were principally at Whitesville, Colfax and Newmarket.

Mr. Hanks was married on April 27, 1865, to Mary Elizabeth Everson, born in Montgomery county, Indiana, February 27, 1845, daughter of George W. and Rachael (Hankins) Everson, whose father was one of the prominent residents of Fayette county, Pennsylvania. Mrs. Hank's grandfather, on the paternal side, Jacob Everson, was one of the earliest pioneers of Indiana, having entered land from the government and settled here as early as 1824.

To Mr. and Mrs. John W. Hanks the following children have been born: Laura, who lives in Roachdale, this county, married first, Pierce Rittinger, no children being born of this union, and her second husband was Willard Gough; Cora is still a member of the home circle; Jesse M., who died at the age of twenty-eight years, married Cora Oliver; Zadia married Earl Crosby and they live in Putnam county; John married Bert Reeves and he is successfully engaged in the hardware business at Bainbridge; Ross married Elsie Lewis and they reside in this county; Ira is single and is living at home assisting his father with the work on the farm; Daisy, who married Lawrence Friend, is now deceased; Roy died at the age of twenty-two years, single.

Mr. Hanks is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and politically he is a Democrat, but he does not find time or hare the inclination to mingle much in party affairs. He is a member of the Christian church, in support of which he is not sparing of his means - in fact he is always to be found on the right side of all questions looking to the good of his community.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

The Moffetts are a Kentucky product, the family having been founded in that state over a year ago and ramified from there to many parts of the West. Daniel Moffett was first to cross the Ohio river into Illinois and he found his way to the state when it was undeveloped and had little to offer to the first arrivals. Daniel, however, like all the early pioneers, was brave and not to be daunted by bayous, swamps or rank prairie sod. He located in Edgar county, which, though somewhat forbidding at that time, has since been made an agricultural paradise. Along with the old pioneer came his boy, Silas H. Moffett, who developed into a typical farm lad and helped on the farm until he reached his majority. In early manhood he became religious. joined church and gradually became one of the primitive Baptist ministers, whose unselfish work so greatly benefited the moral status of the rude pioneers. Between farming and preaching he made a living and for years before his death his voice was familiar in the pulpits of his church in Edgar county. He passed away June 2, 1905, after he had completed his seventy-eighth year, and all agreed that his life had been both useful and blameless. He married Eliza Barr, by whom he had three children. F. P. Moffett, the eldest of these, is president of the Bainbridge Bank, at Bainbridge, Putnam county, Indiana. M. B. Moffett, the second son, is a preacher and dealer in insurance at Paris, Illinois. Susan, the only daughter, married Mr. Brinkerhoff and resides at Kansas, Illinois. The mother of these children having died, the father married Nancy Davis, of Edgar county, Illinois. The eight children by this union are as follows: Eliza J., wife of N. R. Bennett, president of The Bank of Westfield, Clark county, Illinois; Lucinda, wife of G. W. Kirkpatrick, president of a bank at Oakland, Coles county, Illinois; Daniel V.; Thomas, who married Lou Grubb, of Oakland, Illinois, and died in 1887; Rector married Anna Zimmerly, of Paris, Illinois, and is engaged in the insurance business; May married W. Gill. cashier of the bank at Cloverdale, Indiana; Minnie is the wife of W. H. Miller, in the real estate business at Terre Haute; John H., who married Jessie Cash, of Oakland, Illinois, is in the livestock commission business at the Union stock yards, in Chicago.

Daniel V. Moffett, third of the second set of children, was born west of Paris, Edgar county, Illinois, June 11, 1863. He lived on a farm in his native county until the completion of his twentieth year, when he began to feel the impulse that stirs all ambitious young men to find a home and career for himself. In 1883 he came to Putnam county and located in Jefferson township, near Mount Meridian, on a farm, where he lived until 1903, when he removed to Cloverdale and became president of a bank in that place, a position which he has since held. He was nominated as candidate for county auditor on the Democratic ticket and was elected and took office on January 1, 1908. He is making a popular official and discharging all his duties in a way to disarm criticism.

The Bank of Cloverdale, of which Mr. Moffett is president, has a capital stock of ten thousand dollars, of which he owns one-third. He also takes a deep interest in agriculture, owning two hundred and sixty acres of splendid land in Jefferson and Marion townships, this county, which is devoted to diversified farming.

On September 6, 1883, Mr. Moffett married Mary J., daughter of Jefferson Hurst, one of the well known men of the county. She is one of eight children, as follows: Morton C., Levi, William, Squire J., James H., George W., Dr. B.F. and Mary J. (Mrs. Moffett). The mother having died at about the age of forty, Mr. Hurst married again and by this union had two children, Joseph B. and Flossie M. Mr. and Mrs. Moffett have one child, D. Ora, born September 6, 1879, and who is now deputy auditor in his father's office. Mr. Moffett is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and his wife belong to the Baptist church.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Agriculture has been an honored vocation from the earliest ages and usually men of proper impulses as well as those of energy and thrift, have been patrons of husbandry. The free outdoor life of the farm has a tendancy to foster and develop that independence of mind and self reliance which characterize true manhood, and no greater blessing call befall a boy than to be reared in close touch with nature, in the healthful, life-inspiring labor of the fields. It has always been the fruitful soil from which have sprung the moral bone and sinew of the country, and the majority of our nation's brave warriors, renowned statesmen, famous authors and profound scholars were born on the farm and were indebted to its early influences for the distinction which they have attained.

Although E. J. I. Proctor, of Monroe township, Putnam county, has not attained national distinction in any phase of human endeavor, he came from the farm and has spent his life in this desirable line of endeavor, achieving success for himself and making his influence for good felt in his community, thus fulfilling his mission in the world just the same as if his name was written high upon the scroll of fame. He is a native of Decatur county, Indiana, born December 5, 1859, the son of W. A. and Mary A. J. (Burch) Proctor, the father a native of Ohio, born January 22, 1823, and died October 9, 1902, reaching an old age from which he could look back over a well spent life, replete with success. He came to Putnam county, Indiana, in 1877. His wife, who was a native of Franklin county, Indiana, preceded him to the grave on January 2, 1899.

E. J. I. Proctor was educated in the common schools of his native community, receiving a very good education. On August 4, 1880, he married Mary Jane Huffman, daughter of Jacob and Sarah Ellen (Stadler) Huffman, an excellent old pioneer family, a complete sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. This union has resulted in the birth of five children, named as follows: Jasper E., born July 17, 1881; Verna E., born June 3, 1883, married William Zeiner, a farmer, and lives in Floyd township; Mary E., born November 16, 1884, married Roy E. Priest and lives in California; Matilda E., born May 26, 1890, married J. R. Sallust, a farmer, and is living in Monroe township; Lola E., born April 19, 1897, is attending school.

Mr. Proctor has been a farmer all his life, as has been before stated, and is now the owner of a very valuable farm of two hundred and forty acres, which are well improved in every respect and which have been so well tilled that this place ranks with the very best in the township. On it stands a very comfortable and well arranged dwelling and numerous substantial outbuildings, a good orchard, garden, and all that goes to make life on the farm desirable. He devotes considerable time to stock raising and has been very successful in this line, always keeping a good grade of various stock. For a time Mr. Proctor lived in Madison county, Iowa, where he married, but returned to his native community and resumed farming here.

Politically he is a Democrat, and he is a member of the Christian church at Fillmore. Fraternally he belongs to the Free and Accepted Masons, Lodge No. 55, also of the Knights Templar, being at present treasurer of the latter, of which he has held all the offices in the local organization. He has long taken a deep interest in lodge work and his daily life would indicate that he believes in carrying the humanitarian and altruistic principles which they seek to inculcate, into his every-day affairs.

Mr. Proctor's paternal grandfather, Joel Proctor, was born in Maine, and came to Ohio about 1820. He settled in Butler county, where he reared his family and where he died. He entered the war of 1812 in Maine and served through that war with distinction and honor. Politically a Whig, he never aspired to office nor public notoriety. He was wel1 known and highly respected, his honor and integrity being above reproach. His children were W. A., father of the subject, born January 22, 1823; Isaiah; Elizabeth died single; Enoch, Jeremiah, Matilda, Mrs. Thomas Hayward; Michael was killed in the Civil war. All of these seven came to Indiana and though they were in limited means, all accumulated large estates. William A. and wife were worthy members of the Christian church, he being also a worthy member of the Masonic fraternity. William A. Proctor married Mary A. J. Burch, who was born in Franklin county, Indiana, December 15, 1824, a daughter of William and Sarah (McNutt) Burch. These parents were married in Virginia in an early day. The McNutt family came from Ireland and the Burch family from England. They came to Ohio and came to Indiana about 1812, settling in Franklin county, where Indians and wild beasts roamed at will. He improved a farm from land he entered in 1812 and the farm is yet in the Burch family. Both he and his wife died at the old Burch homestead in Indiana. Their children were, Margaret, Mrs. Edwin Barusley; Charles, Martha, Mrs. L. Thurston; Sarah, Mrs. Robert Noah; John A. J.; Mary A. J., mother of the subject. Born to William Proctor were: George, a farmer of Iowa; John, who died in infancy; Sarah, Mrs. Joseph Scott, first, and second Lewis Zeigler; Mary, Mrs. Joseph Ogle; William B., of Indianapolis; E. J. I., the subject, and Matilda, who died young.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Deb Murray