Among the numerous Kentuckians who cast their lot with Indiana during the formative period of the state was Edmond Huffman, a man of sterling qualities and exemplary character, who became one of the most influential men of his community. He was born August 16, 1824, and was about nine years old when brought to Putnam county from the old homestead in Nelson county, Kentucky, by his parents, Peter and Cynthia Huffman. The family was of German descent and, being seasoned by the early colonial struggles and the dark days on the border, their descendants were of the material to make hardy pioneers of new states. When this family came here, Indiana was still decidedly crude, giving little promise of the great commonwealth familiar to those living in the twentieth century. Edmond went through all the privations and vicissitudes incident to pioneer days. There was plenty of hard work and not much play; the state, however, was filled with fine game, the hunting of which had much to do in training the youth to out-door sports from which they derived strength and health to meet the inevitable hardships incident to clearing the land, opening roads, building cabins, burning logs cut from the seemingly inexhaustible forests and doing all the other things essential to the making of a state from the raw material.

Edmond Huffman settled in section 18, Washington township in 1836. On April 5, 1849, he married Louisa Ann Rightsell, who was born August 9, 1830, the daughter of George and Margaret Rightsell. At the age of nineteen, Edmond Huffman started out to do for himself, worked six months for William Alexander, near Gosport, Indiana, at five dollars a month, at the end of which time he gave all his wages, thirty dollars, to his father, who soon afterwards made him a present of a colt worth fifteen dollars. It is said at the time of his marriage Edmond Huffman could neither read nor write, but by the aid of his good wife he soon acquired both and finally became well informed on the current topics of the day, and from a very humble beginning he worked hard and managed well, success attending his efforts, until at one time he was the owner of eighteen hundred acres of valuable land, and while he nws laying by an ample competence for his old age and his family he did not lose sight of his duty to his neighbors, but did his full part in the development of the county. Being an ardent Democrat, he took a prominent part in the struggles incident to the old days of Whigs and Democrats. He was strictly a self-made man and altogether was a fine type of the men who made Indiana.

He was a believer in the predestinarian Baptist doctrine. On his farm in Washington township was held the first court seen in Putnam county. The death of this highly honored and public-spirited citizen, successful farmer, kind and generous neighbor and indulgent father, occurred on September 7, 1900, soon fol1owed to the mystic land by his faithful life companion, Mrs. Huffman passing away on December 14th of the same year.

Mr. and Mrs. Huffman were the parents of twelve children, eight of whom survive, namely: James Roberts, born January 25, 1850; Maria E., born October 6, 1851; Cephas, born January 28, 1853, died February 20, 1853; John A., born January 10,1855; Douglas, of this review, was fifth in order of birth; Ivan. born July 31, 1859; Daniel Vorhees, born March 27, 1864; Lucretia A., born May 13, 1863; General Jackson, born September 6, 1868; Margaret, born March 20, 1870; Greeley R., born June 23, 1872.

Douglas Huffman was born May 10, 1857, and grew up to be a worthy son of a worthy sire, assisting him in the farm work during his boyhood and youth, meantime obtaining a fair education in the local schools. He was diligent in his studies, went through the common schools to graduation and afterwards was engaged in teaching for two years in Washington township. After his experience in the school room he embarked in merchandising at Reelsville, and for a period of twenty-two years conducted a general store at that place. He built up an extensive trade and was very successful. In 1900 he retired to look after his farms, being the owner of two excellent places, one of two hundred and seventy acres in Washington township, and one of two hundred and ninety-three acres in Owen county. He utilizes these tracts to carry on general farming and stock raising, not branching out into fancy farming but contenting himself with raising the staple cereal crops and feeding all the livestock the land will fairly support. His land is well tilled and under modern improvements. Mr. Huffman makes his residence in a fine, attractive home in one of the best residence sections of Greencastle, where the many friends of the family are delightfully entertained. The presiding spirit of the home is a lady of refined tastes and amiable disposition, known in her maidenhood as Mollie Baumunk, whom he married on April 20, 1884; she was born and reared in Putnam county, where her people were always well respected. This union has resulted in the birth of three children. Of these, Murray and Morris E. died in infancy; Merle C., born in 1896, is attending high school.

Mr. Huffman's fraternal associations are with the Masons and he is a member of the Greencastle Lodge, No. 473, of that order. He is also a member of Lodge No. 1077, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, of Greencastle.

Mr. Huffman occupies a conspicuous place among the representative citizens of Putnam county and enjoys the confidence and esteem of all who know him. His record demonstrates that where there is a will there is a way and that obstacles to success may be overcome by courage and self-reliance. His career, though strenuous, has been fraught with good to his fellow men and his example is cordially commended to the youth of the land whose life work is yet a matter of the future.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Among the modern agriculturists of Putnam county is Joseph Willard Cromwell, who is the owner of a splendidly improved farm in Warren township. He is a native of Clay county, Indiana, where his birth occurred April 6, 1860, the son of John Q. and Diana E. (Barnett) Cromwell, the latter the daughter of John and Rachael (Ellis) Barnett and was born April 2, 1832. Mr. and Mrs. Barnett were pioneer settlers, coming to this county in 1827; the father died in August, 1875, at the age of seventy-eight years, and the mother in the same year, being seventy-five years old. John Q. Cromwell was the son of Nicholas D. and Amelia (Marshall) Cromwell, descendants of the noted Cromwell of England. They first settled in Maryland, thence going to Kentucky and then to Indiana. Nicholas was the first sheriff, also the first treasurer of Clay county and was judge of the circuit court for a period of seventeen years. He was born in 1771, and died in 1848, at Bowling Green, Clay county, Indiana. John Q. Cromwell was reared on a farm and followed this line of work all his life, dealing extensively in livestock; for two years he engaged in the retail merchandise business. Politically he was a Democrat and held the office of justice of the peace twelve years and was trustee of his township for four years, and he was a notary public - in short, a very useful man in his community, where he was honored by all who knew him. During the Civil war he sent a substitute, for which he paid eight hundred and fifty dollars. At the time of his death he was a resident of Pleasant Garden, Washington township, dying April 7, 1902. His wife died October 16, 1905. They were the parents of the following children: Charles N. married Allie Browning, now deceased, two children were born to them, Tunis and Claude; his second wife was Minnie Anderson, also deceased; he married a third time, Mrs. Maud Pounds. John E. Cromwell married Kate Brock and they are the parents of three children, Mable, Pearl and Grace. Grandal T. married Laura Akers and resides in Terre Haute; Curtis Clay is deceased; Rella, who remained single, is an evangelist; Josephine married George McKinley and they have three children, Helen (deceased), Jesse and Margaret; DeWitt P. married Lillie Shadwick, reside in Indianapolis and are the parents of two children, DeWitt, Jr., and Helen; Florence, who married Charles Lee, is a widow; Rella and Josie were teachers for some time in the public schools of Putnam county and Clay counties. Ml r . and Mrs. Cromwell have fifteen grandchildren living and two dead.

Joseph W. Cromwell, of this review, remained at home with his parents until sixteen years of age, when he accepted a position with the Vandalia Railroad Company, in the employ of which he has remained continuously for a period of thirty-four years, being employed as steam shovel engineer most of the time and he has always been regarded as one of the most trusted of the company's employes. February 1, 1885, he was married to Laura B. Hepler, born August 16, 1564, the daughter of John D. and Elettita (Leonard) Hepler, her parents having been among the old settlers of Putnam county, spending their lives on a farm here. Mr. Hepler was a native of Putnam county and he became the owner of a large tract of land near Putnamville, where he still lives, having sold much of the land he formerly owned. He has reached an advanced age. Daniel Hepler, grandfather of Mrs. Cromwell, was a native of South Carolina, and was an early settler in Putnam county. He married Gadsy Heath.

A few years after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph W. Cromwell purchased a tract of land adjoining that of Mrs. Cromwell's father and here they have continued to make their home. In the spring of 1910 they moved into a new, modern and beautiful home which they erected beside their old home. They are the parents of seven children, five of whom are living; they are, Vita B., born October 20, 1885 ; John W., born January 21, 1890; Bulah D., born November 25, 1893; Oliver, born October 30, 1900; Mary E., born October 1, 1902; Fred B., born March 23, 1887, died April 2d following; Isabella, born December 22, 1895, died young. The oldest child, Vita E., was married August 12, 1908, to Charles Klotz, and they reside in Indianapolis.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Among the well known and popular citizens of Putnam county is he whose name forms the caption of this sketch and who is very satisfactorily filling the office of county treasurer, his labors among his fellow men in Putnam county having made him a much liked public character, being known as a man of keen perceptive faculties, unusual soundness of judgment and upright in all his dealings with his fellow countrymen, until today his name stands high on the scroll of honored residents of this locality. Being descendants of worthy ancestors who figured conspicuously in the early development of this county, hence being history makers, the Miller family is gladly accorded proper recognition in this work.

Jasper N. Miller was born in Franklin township, Putnam county, December 18, 1853, the son of James T. and Mary (Brown) Miller. The former was born October 28, 1830. in this county, the son of one of the early pioneers here, having entered three hundred and eighty acres of land in Franklin township, the family having come here from Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, in 1829, and amid the wilderness began developing a new home, and in due course of time became well established.

The parents of Jasper N. Miller were married on November 30, 1850. Mary Brown, who was born February 16, 1831, was the daughter of Jonathan and Eliza (Camp) Brown, both of whom came from Tennessee at an early date, having been prominent pioneer citizens. This couple grew up to honest toil in a new country, where they received only a meager schooling in the old-time schools of the early days. Five children were born to them, named as follows: Jason Riley, born September 2, 1859; Jasper Newton, of this review; Eliza Vorhees, born September 10, 1860; Sylvia Alice, born September 10, 1860, and died February 9, 1888 ; Serilda Jane, born December 20, 1856, and died January 1, 1874.

James F. Miller, father of these children, devoted his life exclusively to farming, at which he was very successful, being a man who was never afraid of hard work, owing to the fact that it fell to his lot to assist in clearing and cultivating the old homestead in Franklin township when he was but a mere boy. He is a man of the very highest integrity and honor, a Democrat but not a public man. He still lives in Monroe township with his wife where he is highly esteemed by all his neighbors and friends. He removed from Franklin township to Monroe township in 1872.

Jasper N. Miller, the immediate subject of this review, received his early schooling in the common schools of his native township, and later in life he greatly augmented his early training by close application to the study of general topics at home and by contact with the world in general. He early began farming and has followed that vocation practically all his life, in connection with which he has sold wind-mills and pumps, being considered an authority on wind-mills, representing the Zimmerman Manufacturing Company of Auburn, Indiana, in a very satisfactory manner. He also followed the well-drilling business for some time, but up to 1872 his attention was given esc1usively to assisting his father on the home farm. For a number of years he rented land, buying sixty acres in 1876. He has prospered by reason of his close application to his business affairs and the exercise of splendid judgment and principles that cannot help but lead to gratifying results when they are rightly applied as they have evidently been done in his case, for he is now the owner of one of the choice farms of Putnam county, consisting of two hundred and thirteen acres, on which he carries on general farming and stock raising, always handling some very fine specimens of livestock, for which he finds a ready market. He has a very comfortable and well located dwelling and such outbuildings and modern farming machinery as his needs require.

Mr. Miller was married on April 29, 1872, to Sophia A. James, born August 1, 1853, daughter of David and Mary Ann (Howard) James, an old and highly honored pioneer family of Putnam county. David James was born near Natural Bridge, Kentucky, and came to Putnam county when six years old. Mary Ann James came from Tennessee. This union has resulted in the birth of three children, named as follows: Viola Mae, who was born on September 9, 1875, married E. R. Denny, a farmer of Monroe township, this county; Ray R., born February 6, 1885, married Anna McFadden, living on the parental farm; Mary C., born November 3, 1889, is assisting her father in the county treasurer's office.

Mr. Miller has always been deeply interested in the affairs of Putnam county and has stood ready at all times to forward any worthy movement looking to the betterment of the same, ever loyal to the principles of the Democratic pasty, and as a reward for his interest in public affairs, his sterling honesty and his genuine worth he was selected by his party for the office of county treasurer, being nominated at his first effort for the office. During his campaign he never went into a saloon, and his total expense was not over one hundred dollars. He was elected on November 3, 1909, taking office in January, 1910, and he is very satisfactorily discharging the duties of the same, his election being a criterion of his popularity in the county, his majority being four hundred forty-five. 0n January 7, 1910, he was honored by being renominated for the office.

Fraternally Mr. Miller is a member of the Free and Accepted Masons, Lodge No. 75, at Bainbridge, Indiana. He also belongs to the Supreme Court of Honor. The Miller family holds membership in the Christian church.

Personally Mr. Miller is a man whom everybody likes, being courteous, a good mixer, honest and conscientious in his service to his fellowmen in every capacity.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

One of Putnam county's substantial farmers and gallant veterans is William Woodson Hodge, who was born within her borders, February 10, 1845, and whose life has been spent principally in Warren township, where his well-kept farm is to be found. He is the son of George W. and Gabrella Courtney (Williamson) Hodge, natives of Kentucky. the former born October 16, 1819, and the latter January 29, 1826. The father was six years old when his parents, Drew and Sarah Hodge, came to Putnam county in 1826 and built a log cabin on an eighty-acre tract which they entered from the government, on which Mr. Hodge lived until his death in 1840, his widow surviving until 1868. They were members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and they are buried at the Walnut church graveyard. To them eight children were born: Russell, Alexander, Meshak, Shelton, George W., Laura, Sina and Margaret. They are all deceased. George W. Hodge, father of William W., of this review, spent his boyhood assisting with the work on the home farm and received the advantages of such schools of his day as were afforded by the log school house, with its open fire-place and with slabs for seats.

In 1842 George W. Hodge married Gabrella Courtney Williamson and began his married life on his parents' farm, which he heired. He sold this place and for several years lived on several different tracts, which he bought and sold in turn, finally purchasing seventy acres in section 1, Washington township, and spent the remainder of his life there, dying March 21, 1865, his widow surviving until 1898. He devoted his life to farming, and he was assessor of his township for one term. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church and a Greeley Abolitionist in politics. He and his wife were the parents of nine children, seven of whom are now living, namely: Mrs. Matilda Bryant, of Lawrence county, Indiana; Mrs. Laura Corwin is living in the state of Idaho; Mrs. Susan Jackson, of Missouri; Mrs. Julia Ford, of Kansas; Charles W., of Idaho; Mrs. Mary Taylor, of Idaho; Ellen and Margaret Frances are deceased; William W., of this review.

William W. Hodge remained with his parents on the home farm, receiving a common school education, gained mostly in subscription schools. In 1863, when only seventeen years of age, he enlisted in Company F, One Hundred and Twenty-third Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served through many trying campaigns and hard-fought battles until the close of the war, among which was the siege of Atlanta, battle of Nashville, battle of Franklin, battle of Wise Forks, North Carolina, and he was present at the surrender of Johnston. He was honorably discharged August 25, 1865, returning to his home and managing the parental acres for two years thereafter, his father having died while he was in the service.

On March 26, 1868, Mr. Hodge was married to Lucy A. Sellers, daughter of James and Nancy Sellers, of Warren township, where Mr. Sellers carried on farming. Mr. and Mrs. Hodge went to live with the former's mother on the home farm. Later he purchased one hundred and fifty acres in section 17, Warren township, paying one thousand dollars in cash and going in debt for the balance. His mother moved onto this farm and he remained on the home place, though for several years they farmed the two places in partnership. When, in 1880, his mother moved back to her old home, he moved to his own farm and has made it his home ever since, having fully paid the debt long ago. He has been very successful as a general farmer and especially as an horticulturist, having a fine orchard of forty acres, planted in an excellent variety of choice trees. He is an authority on peach growing and no small part of his income is derived from his orchard. He also finds time to raise stock of a very good quality which always finds a ready market, in fact he usually commands fancy prices owing to the high grade of his stock. But it is principally as a fruit grower that he is widely known, not only throughout Putnam county, but also over the state, being considered an authority in horticulture. He has taken an interest in political affairs and for two years was trustee of his township.

Mrs. Hodge died January 1, 1879, and Mr. Hodge then married Emran Mercer, daughter of Eli and Lucy Mercer, of Washington township, her father having been one of the old farmers of Putnam county and a highly respected citizen. Mr. Hodge's first marriage resulted in the birth of six children, namely: Carrie, James, Dora, Frankie, Lucy and William; the last two named being twins. Two children were born of the second union, Minnie and Montray.

Carrie B. Hodge was born August I, 1869, married Frank A. Pearcy, a carpenter, and they are the parents of one child, Harold, now five years of age. James W. Hodge was born September 10, 1871, has remained single, and he is a graduate of the State Normal, also of DePauw University, and he is now superintendent of the schools at Aberdeen, Washington, having followed teaching. Dora B. Hodge, who was born September 5, 1573, married George Pearcy, and they are the parents of one child, George E., now four years old. Charles F. Hodge, who was born April 13, 1876, died September 21, 1877; William W. Hodge, Jr., born January 1, 1879, died July 6th following. Lucy A., born January 1, 1879, died February 18, 1880; Minnie was born August 10, 1881, married W. 0. Lewis, of Warren township, and they have two children, Aubrey and Bernice; Montray was born February 24, 1885, died August 6, 1887.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

To spend a few hours with William Yates Lewis, a venerable and highly honored citizen of Warren township, listening to his interesting reminiscences of the olden times in Putnam county, one could not well be better entertained, for his long, useful and, in some respects, eventful career has been spent in his native locality, which he has seen advance from the wild woods to the modern twentieth-century civilization, and he has taken no small part in this work of transformation, having been a hard worker all his life and deeply interested in the growth of his community in all lines, being ready whenever occasion presented itself to do his full share of the work to be done here.

Mr. Lewis is a native of Monroe township, born February 19, 1833, the son of Israel Gregg and Nancy Susan Jane Lewis, the father a native of Kentucky and the mother of Virginia. They came to Putnam county, Indiana, as early as 1826, locating one-half mile east of Brick Chapel, Monroe township, buying there one hundred and sixty acres of land at five dollars per acre, which in those days, was a high price; however, the place had some improvements, including a log house, which Mr. Lewis continued to occupy for a period of twenty-five years, making various additions to the same. He finally sold this place and purchased two hundred and sixty acres in section 15, Warren township, upon which stood a hewn-log house. He was a successful farmer for those days and he lived here until his death in 1855, his widow surviving to a ripe old age, dying on February 25, 1890. Israel G. Lewis found time from his farming to do a great deal of church work, having been a minister in the Methodist Episcopal church, having charge of a circuit; he also studied medicine and was successful as a practitioner as well as a minister, and in these ways he accomplished a great amount of good and became widely known. In his day log-rollings were frequent and it had long been the custom to have plenty of whisky at such events, but Mr. Lewis discarded the jug and gave his neighbors coffee on such occasions, which seemed to be appreciated and had a good effect upon the morals of the community. He was known for his generosity and hospitality in entertainment of both friend and stranger. Politically he was a Whig. He was patriotic and volunteered during the war of 1812 and he was in the famous charge at the battle of the Thames, when the great war chief and British general Tecumseh was killed. He and his wife were the parents of the following children: Rhoda A., now Mrs. Cowgill; James Nathaniel, Oscar Thomas Lewis, Solomon Colmbs, Lucy Emarin, now Mrs. Bridges; William Yates, of this review; George Ewing. Charles Henry, Gabriel Clay, Susan Jane, Louisa Elizabeth, now Mrs. Evans; Gabriel died in infancy; Israel died when five years of age; Nancy died in infancy. Only three of these children are now living, two sisters beside the subject of this review, Susan Jane, who has remained single and makes her home with A. L. Evans on the old homestead, and Louisa E., the wife of Arthur E. Evans, of Warren township.

William Yates Lewis spent his early life on the home farm, attending school in the log houses of his day, with their rude furnishings. Such schools were conducted on the subscription plan, and only the rudiments of an education could be gained unless the pupil took the pains to further his own researches.

Mr. Lewis was married on December 30, 1865, to Mary Emily Clearwater, the daughter of John and Matilda Clearwater, of Warren township, Mr. Clearwater being one of the early settlers of this county and one of the builders of the National road. His parents were natives of Virginia.

Mr. Lewis and his bride went to housekeeping on one hundred and fifteen acres in section 22, Warren township, and he has continued to make his home here to the present time, having made a very comfortable living, improved a fine farm and laid by an ample competency for his old age. He first lived in a double log house, and in 1888 built a more pretentious dwelling just in front of the old house which he tore down, leaving the old rock chimney, twelve feet in height, built of dressed Putnam county stone, and which is still in excellent condition, and is now covered with vines. It is prized by all the family as a relic of the old home. General farming and stock raising has occupied Mr. Lewis' attention. He is a Republican in politics and for two years was trustee of his township; formerly he was a Whig. He is a member of the Methodist church at Bethel.

Six children constitute Mr. Lewis' family, they are: Ida Belle, born November 12, 1866, married George H. Hurin, of Crown Point, Indiana, and four children have been born to them, May, Joyce Lewis, Mary Jean, Kellie Rose. Ezra Clay Lewis, born December 3, 1867, married Love D. Wills, and he has followed the painter's trade in this county, they are the parents of six children, Vernie Clare, Bertha Gladys, Forest Wills, Ernest Paul, Gertrude M. and Leslie L. Lou Nellie Lewis, born September 6, 1870, married M. E. Cooper and they are the parents of four children, Marion L., Mary F., Ruth and Catherine. Charles Ernest Lewis, born May 2, 1873, married Lottie Roberts and they are the parents of four children, Dorothy, Helen L., John W. and Edward C., they live on a farm in this county. Catherine Gertrude Lewis, born August 14, 1875, married first, Owen T. Wright, then George O. Whittaker, she lives on a farm in Putnam county and is the mother of two children, Wayne Lewis and Esther Catherine. William Otis Lewis, born November 11, 1881, married Minnie Hodge, they live on a farm in this county, and are the parents of two children, Aubrey G. and Vernice L.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Among the enterprising citizens and prominent and successful business men of Fillmore, Putnam county, Indiana, is the gentleman whose name appears at the head of this sketch. A lifelong resident of this county, he has so lived as to merit the unbounded respect and confidence of his neighbors and now, as the golden sunset of his life draws near, he is enjoying that rest which he has so richly earned.

Ebenezer W. Smythe was born February 4, 1832, in this county, and is a son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth (Sill) Smythe, both of whom were natives of Shelby county, Kentucky, the father having descended from sturdy Scotch-Irish ancestry. He came to Putnam county in 1824 and located on eighty acres of land which he had purchased near Greencastle . He lived on this land until his death, which occurred in 1861, when he was sixty-three years old. His wife had preceded him to the unseen land, dying in 1856, at the age of fifty-two years. Their remains were interred in the family burying ground on their homestead farm. Ebenezer Smythe followed the occupation of farming during his active years and was numbered among the active and influential men of his community. In religious belief he was a Presbyterian, while his wife was a member of the Baptist church. They became the parents of nine children, of whom four are now living, namely: George V., a farmer in Greencastle township, this county; Hannah R., the widow of John Clark Ridpath, the eminent historian, who for many years was one of the best known citizens of Greencastle; Harriet, of Illinois, the widow of the late Benjamin Coffeen; Ebenezer W., the subject of this sketch.

Ebenezer W. Smythe spent his boyhood days on the paternal homestead and received his education in the common schools. He was reared to the life of a farmer and remained as his father's assistant until his marriage, in 1858, at which time he located at Fillmore and engaged in the contracting business. He was a careful and expert workman and a good business man and many of the best buildings, public and private, in and about Greencastle were erected by him. In 1865 Mr. Smythe removed to Greencastle, continuing his former line of work and at the same time engaging in the undertaking business, which line he followed for twelve years. He then moved to Chicago and engaged in the manufacture of cotton presses, in which he met with gratifying success, so that four years later he retired from that business and returned to his former location at Fillmore, where he erected a neat and attractive residence, modern in every respect, and in this comfortable home he is now living and enjoying life. He is not passing the time idly, however, but has recently superintended the erection of the new school house just completed at Fillmore, his sound judgment and integrity being generally recognized. He has at all times taken a keen and intelligent interest in current events and gives an earnest support to all movements tending to the advancement of the best interests of the community.

0h October 31, 1858, Mr. Smythe was united in marriage to Sarah Oliver, a daughter of Morris and Martha Oliver, of Marion township, this county. Mrs. Smythe died on February 11, 1885, and on October 31, 1888, Mr. Smythe married Louisa C. Knight, the daughter of Lloyd and Katherine Knight, of Marion township, the former having served as coroner of Putnam county for four years.

Mr. Smythe is the father of seven children, all by his first marriage, namely: Clara Belle, who is unmarried and is employed as a saleslady in Allen Brothers dry goods store in Greencastle; Jennie, the wife of Henry Pentenoy, of Chicago; Arthur L., who married Lola Snyder; Oliver H., of Chicago, married Kate Callahan, and they have one child, Clara; Wesley W. married Mabel Kissinger and they have three children, Eban, Grace and Arthur; Frank R. married Bertha McFrase and they have four children, Jean Marie, Bertha, Frank R. J. and Freda E.; Harry B. married Susie B. Kissinger and they hare three children, Royal, Allen and Sarah C.

Fraternally Mr. Smythe is a member of the Free and Accepted Masons, the Knights of Pythias, and the Foresters, as we11 as the Carpenters' Union. Religiously he is a member of the Christian church and his wife of the Methodist Episcopal church.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

The family of this name is of English stock on the paternal side and German on the maternal. It is of ancient origin and has been identified with the eastern part of the country from early colonial days. The emigrating ancestors settled on Kent Island, Maryland, on land granted to them by the King, and they lived in that locality for generations, meantime sending out offshoots to various parts of the country. Among the descendants of this emigrant ancestor is William H. Ayler, a native of the eastern shore of Maryland and a master mechanic by profession, being now in the employ of the United States government at the national capital. He married Jane Rebecca Gladfelter, whose family also was one of old and well-established connections, dating their origin in Switzerland. That they were notable people in their native county is attested by the fact that a canton there now bears their name. Casper Gladfelter was the first of the name to come to America and he settled on a farm near York, Pennsylvania. In 1907 a family reunion was held on the old farm that had been cleared by this first emigrant and there were over two thousand descendants present, representing forty-two states. Mrs. Jane Rebecca Ayler, who was a granddaughter of Casper Gladfelter, died in 1903, at Baltimore, Maryland, at the age of sixty-four years. She was one of eleven children and the first of the family to die. By her union with William H. Ayler she became the mother of nine children, of whom eight are living, namely: John S., of Baltimore; Henry E., an employee of the postoffice department at Washington; Ella R., wife of Jacob Hunt, of Baltimore; Thomas T., in the postal department at Baltimore, Maryland; Reuben A., a twin brother of Ella R., died in infancy; Amos Evans, of Greencastle; Lila V. and Rosa E., residents of Washington; William L., who is a manufacturing chemist at Dallas, Texas. All these children were born at Baltimore, except the youngest, who is a native of Wilmington, Delaware. A notable characteristic of the Ayler family is the unusual number of twins. William H. was a twin, and the father of twins, and one of his sons met with the same double blessing.

Amos Evans Ayler, the sixth in order of birth of this interesting family, was born at Baltimore, Maryland, December 5, 1870. He remained in the city of his nativity until the completion of his twenty-seventh year, meanwhile attending the public schools and being graduated from the high school. In 1890 he entered the Cleveland Medical College and after spending one year in that institution he became a student in the southern Homeopathic College at Baltimore and after three years of diligent application was graduated with the class of 1897. He served for awhile as senior interne in the Baltimore Homeopathic Hospital, after which he became physician in charge of the National Homeopathic Hospital at Washington, D. C. He retained this responsible position for twenty-six months and then decided to find another field for his energies in the central West. August 8, 1899, he located at Greencastle, Indiana, and ever since has been closely identified with the business, social and professional life of that city. He has practiced his profession continuously and assiduously, meeting with the success that is sure to follow talent well applied and industry of the unwearying kind. Indeed, his success has been unusual, with the result that he is recognized as one of the most progressive physicians in Indiana, with advanced and definite ideas regarding the treatment of diseases by the most modern methods. His ability is recognized beyond the confines of his adopted county and he is frequently called in obstinate cases where the best talent is desired. Doctor Ayler is the owner of a splendid property, extending one hundred and four feet on Washington street and two hundred and twenty feet on College avenue, comprising a half square, and on this property he has erected a modern and conveniently-arranged office building and a comfortable and attractive residence.

Fraternally Doctor Ayler is especially conspicuous as a Freemason, having passed through the Masons degrees including those of Knight Templar in the York rite and the thirty-second of the Scottish rite. He has been honored by official distinction in several of the bodies, being a past high priest in the chapter of Royal Arch Masons at Greencastle and the present eminent commander of the commandery of Knights Templar. He is also a member of the Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, belonging to Murat Temple at Indianapolis. The Doctor is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Fraternal Order of Eagles, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and the Junior Order of American Mechanics. Professionally he is a member of the American Institute of Homeopathy, is independent in politics and altogether is one of the most notable and popular men in Greencastle.

On June 21, 1899, Doctor Ayler was married, at Washington, D. C., to Wilhelmina Reocher, a native of Pomeroy, Ohio, whose parents were John Franklin and Margaret F. Reocher, both of German stock. To Doctor and Mrs. Ayler have been born twin daughters, Amy Evelyn and Mary Elva, born May 17, 1903.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Among the well remembered and highly respected men of Putnam county, who, during a former generation, did much for the general good of the residents here and who have "cast off the robes and instruments of sense" and now sleep the sleep that knows no waking, is John M. Bowman, who left his family a valuable estate near Fillmore and also left behind him what is more valuable, an honored name, for he was a man in whom his neighbors placed the utmost confidence, knowing him to be honest and kind and of a likable disposition.

Mr. Bowman was born December 25, 1835, the son of Leonard and Mary (Hickman) Bowman, who came to this county from Kentucky in 1833, locating on a farm. He was a farmer and carpenter and he and his wife were members of the Methodist church; his death occurred April 1, 1870, Mrs. Bowman reaching an advanced age, dying March 15, 1900. Both are buried at Mt. Camel, this county. They were the parents of eleven children, namely: John M., the immediate subject of this sketch; Matilda Jane, Martha Katherine, William, Elizabeth Margaret, George, Charles, Alice, Lyddia, Gilbert B. and Martha; all are deceased except the last two named. They were all born on the present Bowman homestead here. Martha is the wife of William Denny and Gilbert Brown is living at Lebanon, Indiana.

John M. Bowman received a common school education and spent his boyhood days on the home farm. He married Sarah J. Smith, February 24, 1861. She is the daughter of Robert L. and Elmina Smith, an old and highly respected family of this county. Mr. Smith having been a successful and honored farmer, owning a farm adjoining that of Leonard Bowman.

Mr. and Mrs. Bowman went to housekeeping in a log hut on a farm joining the land owned by his father, consisting of two hundred and thirty-nine acres, which he bought in 1873.

Mr. Bowman was one of the patriotic sons of the South who enlisted in defense of his country, becoming a member of Company H, Eleventh Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served five months or until the close of the war. Upon his return from the front he moved from his original home and settled on the old home place, where he resided until his death, February 3, 1907. He received a pension of fifty dollars a month. He was not only a successful farmer, but also raised stock of a good quality. He was a Republican in politics and a progressive citizen, believing in good roads and all kinds of public improvements. He belonged to the Methodist church at Fillmore, of which congregation his wife is also a member. Mr. and Mrs. Bowman were the parents of fourteen children, named as follows: Laura Isabelle is the wife of John C. Broadstreet, a farmer of Mill Creek township, and they are the parents of six children, Austin (deceased), Martin, Linnie, Mingle, Wayne and Verlin. Linnie Elma married a Mr. Broadstreet and is now deceased; Mary Eddy is deceased; Luella is the wife of Charles Bius.,of Marion township, they live on a farm and are the parents of four children, Jesse, Maynard, Alberta and Walter. Charles Edgar married Lennie Forest Perry (deceased), and they had one child, Gladys, they live on a farm in Marion tow nship. The next child died in infancy; Lee Hulda is the wife of Walter Wright, a farmer in Marion township, and they are the parents of two children, Olen and Dorothy; Ollie Elmina is deceased, and left one child, Lois Cowell; Claude Orlando is deceased; Martha Catherine is deceased; George Clyde is living at home witf one child, Clyde; Baddy E. (deceased); Candace Alice is the wife of Dr. Bert O'Brien, they have two children, Bernice and William Waldo, they live at Winchester, Hendricks county; Leta Elizabeth, deceased.

Besides her own large family Mrs. Bowman raised two children, Clarence Van Cleve and May Avery.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

The family of which the subject of this review is an honorable representative has been identified with Putnam county since the pioneer period and today there are few names in this part of Indiana as widely known or as highly esteemed. Lycurgus Stoner, a veteran of the late Civil war and a prominent citizen of Washington townskip, is a grandson of Peter Stoner, of Maryland, whose antecedents were among the early settlers of that colony. Peter Stoner was born September 14, 1763, and at the age of sixteen ran away from home on account of his stepfather and entered the American army, enlisting in 1780 for three months' service. At the expiration of that time he re-entered for six months, still later for ten months, and during his military experience participated in a number of battles and skirmishes, including the engagements at Monks Corner and Eutaw Springs, North Carolina, in the latter of which he was twice wounded. Some time after the close of the war for independence he settled in Orange county. North Carolina, where he lived until his removal, about the year 1832, to Putnam county, Indiana. In September, 1832, he applied to the government for a pension, which in due time was granted, this fact together with his war record being attested to in March, 1890, by Valentine Warner, commissioner of pensions at Washington, D. C.

Peter Stoner was married August 13, 1793, to Eva Cotner and became the father of several children, among whom were Peter, Jr., who moved to Putnam county in 1823. Joseph, who also settled in this county, locating on Little Walnut creek in Madison township, where he cleared a farm and spent the remainder of his life. He was a member of the society of Friends, was twice married and lived to be quite an old man. Peter Stoner was a man of fine business ability and at his death, which occurred on April 7, 1851, left a valuable estate.

Peter Stoner, Jr., son of the above, preceded his father to Putnam county by about nine years, settling two miles west of Greencastle, between Little and Big Walnut creeks, in 1823. He drove from his North Carolina home in a two-horse wagon, which contained his few belongings in the way of household goods and agricultural implements, and upon his arrival the sum total of his available cash amounted to just fifty cents. In due time he erected a log cabin, in which his children were afterwards born, and by dint of hard and long-continued labor, cleared and improved a farm on which he spent the remainder of his life. The present house, which replaced the original cabin, was built in 1853 and has been used continually since that year, being one of the oldest farm dwellings in the community and in a good state of preservation. Mr. Stoner added to his holdings at intervals until he became the owner of about four hundred acres of land which afterwards increased in value and placed him in independent circumstances. He directed his energies to the clearing and developing a part of this land and as a farmer he easily ranked with the best in the county and acquired a handsome competency, leaving at his death an estate conservatively estimated at over a hundred thousand dollars. Although a member of no church, his life was singularly noble and upright and against his character no breath of suspicion was ever uttered. His death, on June 4, 1876, was profoundly lamented by the large circle of friends and neighbors. Mrs. Stoner, who preceded her husband to the grave about two or three years, was a woman of excellent repute and stood high in the confidence and esteem of all who knew her. The family of this worthy couple consisted of the following children: Joseph W., Lycurgus, William P., Peter S., John W., Sarah J., widow of John Davis of California; Lucy, wife of Benjamin Daggey, of LaPorte county, Indiana; Eve, who married James H. Torr, and lives on the old homestead in Madison township, and Indiana, wife of John L. Hillis, of Greencastle.

Lycurgus Stoner, the second of the above family, was born March 17, 1836, in Putnam county, Indiana, and spent his early life on the family homestead, attending in the meantime such schools as were then common. He remained with his parents assisting in the cultivation of the farm until ominous clouds of impending civil war obscured the national horizon, when, with thousands of other loyal young men throughout the North, he responded to the first call for troops, enlisting on April 21, 1861, in the Tenth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with which he served three months in Virginia, taking part during that time in several skirmishes and minor engagements, including the action at Rich Mountain, which was among the first battles of the war. At the expiration of his period of service he re-enlisted and shortly thereafter was attached to General Fremont's body guard at St. Louis, where he remained on active duty until his time expired. In January, 1863, he joined Company E, Twenty-first Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, at Baltimore, Maryland, and continued with the regiment until 1864, on January 10th of which year he veteranized with Company E, Twenty-first Regiment, Indiana Volunteers, at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was in General Butler's command and operated along the lower Mississippi and elsewhere, among the more noted of that General's achievements being the capture of New Orleans, in which the subject took part.

Later Mr. Stoner was with General Banks on the ill-starred Red River expedition, where he saw much active service and passed through many thrilling experiences; he also participated in the battle at Baton Rouge, the capture of Port Hudson and a number of other engagements, his military service being replete with duty bravely and uncomplainingly performed. While at the front he was fortunate in escaping injury, the only time he was absent from his command by reason of disability being a short period in a hospital at New Orleans, where he was treated for an attack of typhoid fever.

Discharged with an honorable record at the expiration of his period of enlistment, Mr. Stoner returned to Putnam county and shortly thereafter purchased a fine tract of bottom land on the Big Walnut creek, which he at once proceeded to improve. Mr. Stoner in due time had his farm under a high state of tillage and in connection with agriculture also devoted considerable attention to the breeding and raising of fine livestock, in which his success was continuous and gratifying. For twenty-eight years he was associated with his brother Peter in the livestock business and since 1884 has occupied the beautiful and commodious home in Washington township, where he is now living a life of honorable retirement.

Mr. Stoner, on February 11, 1867, was happily married to Elvira Boone, a daughter of Daniel and Malinda (Miller) Boone, the father a native of Harrison county, Indiana, and a son of Moses and Hannah Boone and a great nephew of Daniel Boone, the noted hunter, frontiersman and Indian fighter, who bore such a distinguished part in the early annals of Kentucky and elsewhere throughout the central West. Mrs. Stoner's father came to Putnam county with his parents about 1821 and settled on Big Walnut creek in Washington township, where Moses Boone died in 1833 at the ripe old age of eighty-four years and three months. Daniel spent his young manhood clearing and developing the farm on which he and his faithful wife spent the remainder of their days, he departing this life on October 20, 1889, aged seventy-three, and she on the 12th day of March, 1902, when eighty-two years old. All of the eleven children born to this estimable couple grew to maturity, and ten of the number are still living, being among the old and well known residents of Putnam county and highly esteemed in their respective communities. Squire Boone, a brother of the famous frontiersman, at one time owned the farm on which Mr. Stoner now lives; he sold the land in 1849 and went to Iowa, settling on the present site of Boonsboro in Boone county, where his son and other descendants still reside, the town and county being so named in honor of the family.

Mrs. Lycurgus Stoner, whose birth occurred February 9, 1840, has borne her husband eight children, five of whorn survive, viz: Fred, who lives on the homestead in Washington township; Gertrude, under the parental roof; Maude, who married Edward Houck, of Brazil, Indiana; Blanche, wife of Oscar O'Hair, of Monroe township, and Lycurgus, who 1ives on the home farm in the township of Madison. Mr. Stoner is a public spirited citizen who stands for all enterprises having for their end the material prosperity of the community and the moral advancement of his fellow men and since attaining his majority has yielded unwavering allegiance to the Republican party. For several years he was a director of the First National Bank of Greencastle, but for some time he has not been identified with any public institution, being the possessor of a handsome fortune and amply able to spend the remainder of his life in the enjoyment and rest which his long years of strenuous effort so richly entitle him.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Among Putnam county's eminent citizens who have passed out of the scene of life's activities into the larger life beyond, were those who achieved distinction in callings requiring intellectual abilities of a high order. Among the latter was William G. Branham, who for many years occupied a conspicuous place in the educational circles of the county, and who was the first superintendent of schools of this county. Beginning his pedagogical work at an early age, he fully appreciated the responsibility of his mission and was a faithful and conscientious teacher, as well as a true friend and judicious advisor to those who were students under him. Today his memory is held sacred by many who were students under him and who, under his direction, learned the lessons which have contributed to their subsequent successes.

William G. Branham was born in Putnam county, Indiana, in 1836, and was a son of Berry and Morris (Sinclair) Branham. He was reared on the home farm and secured his elementary education in the common schools. Determining to fit himself for the profession of teaching, Mr. Branham became a student in old Asbury (now DePauw) University, where he remained nearly four years. At the age of nineteen years he began teaching school at Manhattan, but afterwards his labors were mainly confined to the schools at Cloverdale, where he was employed for many years. In 1866 he became superintendent of schools for Putnam county, but resigned from the office because of some requirements regarding his report of time employed, which his conscience would not permit him to fulfill. Later in life he took up agricultural pursuits, which he carried on until his death, which occurred at the family residence in Warren township in October, 1896. He was truly one of God's noblemen, standing "four square to every wind that blows," and in his death the entire community felt it had suffered a distinct loss.

On November 17, 1861, Mr. Branham was married to Sarah Hughes, a daughter of Harrison and Mary (Prather) Hughes, she having been born on a farm two miles north of Cloverdale. Her parents were natives of Kentucky and her father died while she was but a child.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Philip Bence was one of the adventurous band who braved the terrors of the western wilderness during the latter part of the eighteenth century, when it took courage and endurance to make the trip over the mountains and down the streams. A native of Pennsylvania, he left his home in early manhood and floated down the Ohio to the Falls, where he made up his mind to settle. He took up a location on the ridges in the rear of Louisville, but later bought bottom lands which were mostly under water and at that time possessed little value. His son and namesake, Philip Bence, was born in 1801 in Jefferson county, Kentucky, and married Anna Yenowine Bruce, a native of the same county. In 1853 he came to Indiana and settled on a farm in Putnam county where his son now lives. It consists of three hundred and fifty acres and is situated in Washington township near the present interurban station of Hutcheson. It was partly improved and about one-half consisted of bottom land on the west fork of Eel river. The purchase price at the time was thirty dollars per acre and Philip Bence and his wife spent their lives on that farm. He sold his old home eight miles from Louisville for seventy-five dollars. The last years of his life were spent in retirement and his blameless life ended in October, 1882, when he was eighty-one years old. His wife passed away in her seventieth year. They were lifelong members of the Christian church. They reared ten children to maturity, whose names are as follows: Fountain, a farmer in Clay county, died when sixty-five years old; Onesimus lived and died in Clay county; Elizabeth, who married Warren Greenwell, died in Clay county, where she had lived a number of years; Jeptha, who owned a woollen mill at Greencastle, died at the age of sixty; Lydia, now deceased, was the wife of John Lidick, who resided near Groveland, in Putnam county; Louisa married Philip Hutchenson, of Washington township, Putnam county; Genevra died in early womanhood, shortly after her marriage to Gregg Smith; Matilda, who also died when still young, was the wife of Levi Hepler, of Putnam county; George W. is a physician at Greencastle.

John A. Bence, the oldest child, was born near Louisville, Kentucky, October 29, 1836. He was seventeen years old when his father came to Putnam county and, being strong and vigorous, he was able to do valuable work in clearing the newly purchased farm. He became an excellent farmer for those days, being industrious, level headed, of fine judgment and a good trader. He bought one-third of his father's old place and on this he has ever since made his home. In 1891, he erected the commodious house now seen on the place and made many other improvements, which put his holdings among the high priced and desirable farms of Putnam county. He has never been a fancy farmer and eschewed all the fads and fancies of the theoretical agriculturist. He preferred to put his faith to the old standbys, corn, hogs and cattle, of which he fed a large number each year, turning all his grain into stock, instead of selling it, which is the mark of a successful farmer. By concentrating all his time and ability on the farm he made a success of his business and ranks among the foremost of Putnam county's farmers.

In 1853 Mr. Bence married Anna Kidd, who was reared in Louisville, but who was visiting relatives in Putnam county when she met her future husband. She died in August, 1909, after forty-six years of affectionate and faithful married life. Mr. and Mrs. Bence have an only daughter, Emma, now the wife of William Houck. a farmer and trader who makes his residence at Greencastle. He is a son of David and Rachel Houck, who lived near neighbors of the Bence family. Carl Ferand manages the farm and with his family lives in the house. Mr. Bence greatly enjoys his stock and garden. He has a fine spring above his house, the water of which is first piped to the yard and then to the tanks at the barn, the plant being used to irrigate his garden in case of need. He has been an all-around reader, keeping abreast of the times and has been a subscriber of the Chicago Record-Herald for twenty years. In 1887 he went to California and saw much of the coast country, but found nothing to excel Indiana.

"Weiks History of Putnam County Indiana" by Jesse W. Weik. 1910
B.F. Bowen & Co., Publishers, Indianapolis IN

Deb Murray