This is 37 north, 2 east, bounded on the north by German and Clay townships, on the east by Penn, on the south by Green and Centre, and on the west by Warren, and contains 28 square miles, being four miles north and south by seven east and west. The middle of the south side is near the geographical center of the county. It is one of the first townships organized in the county, and as its history is the same as that of South Bend, the capital of the county, we proceed immediately to give a full account of this enterprising city.


When Alexis Coquillard established a trading post at the south bend of the St. Joseph River in 1824, for the purpose of traffic with the "Pottawatomie Indians, little did he think that around this post would grow up a thriving, bustling city, with manufactories affording employment to thousands of men, and whose articles of manufacture would be shipped to every part of the civilized world. But all this was accomplished in less than 50 years. The Indian, the sole occupant of this land at that time, was sent farther west, and where the wigwams of the braves were erected, now stand the stately mansions of the whites. Change is written upon every hand. The location of the town was well chosen, and was appreciated by the traveler and others as early as 1830. Says a correspondent of the Indianapolis Journal under date November 30, of that year:
"Having lately traveled through the north part of Indiana, I am of the opinion that a description of it will not be without interest to your readers. Traveling west, I passed the southern bend of the St. Joseph river, at the intersection of the Michigan road, where it is supposed the seat of justice of St. Joseph county will ere long be established. This town, I have no doubt, will in a very few years become one of the most important towns north of Indianapolis, and it is a misfortune that the law of the last session authorizing the partial opening of the Michigan road, did not cause it to be opened to the St. Joseph at this bend, where salt manufactured at Canandaigua, New York, of a quality far superior to any manufactured on the Ohio, is now selling for $3.50 per barrel of five bushels. I am pleased to learn that a large number of wagons from distant settlements have come to this place, through the prairie without a road, for loads of this indispensable article."

The early history of South Bend is closely identified with the history of the county, and the history of one is the history of the other, therefore more attention will be given to a later period in what follows.


South Bend was so named in consequence of the town being located upon the south bend of the St. Joseph river, and therefore only expresses locality. Several attempts have been made to change its name; column after column of newspaper articles have been written in favor of and against the proposed change. The name St. Joseph's City was once proposed and found many advocates, but was rejected by the people, and so the name remains as originally bestowed upon it by Alexis Coquillard and his associates in the beginning.


The first commissioners appointed by the Legislature of the State for the location of the county seat selected a place about two miles down the river from South Bend. This did not please the people, and a petition was circulated, and the signature of nearly every voter in the county obtained, changing it to this place. The proprietors of the place offered very favorable inducements to secure its location and the change was made.

When it was settled that South Bend should be the county seat, confidence was instilled in the minds of the settlers and those who desired to locate here, and improvements were at once commenced. The town was laid out, lots sold at a fair price, buildings were erected, and South Bend at once began to reach out. Its growth was slow for some years, but it has never once taken a backward step. A steady growth has always been kept up, which has in the last few years been quickened by the introduction and enlargement of its manufactories, but never exhibiting a mushroom growth.


A writer in the St. Joseph Valley Register, in 1876, when the minds of men were being drawn to historical events, thus writes of the early days of South Bend:

"South Bend was quite a prominent point in the Indian country long before any town was laid out. Niles and Mottville were the first laid-out towns on the St. Joseph river, but long before they were first settled the American Fur Company had a trading post at South Bend, for the sale of Indian goods and the collection of furs, which drew around it quite a little settlement of white people, directly or indirectly engaged in trading with or living off the Indians. Then as far back as 1827, Col. Taylor opened an Indian store at this place, so that when the county was first organized, South Bend had two dry-goods stores. These two establishments, and the few people who collected around them, made it, before it had a name, more attractive to emigration than either Niles or Mottville.

" In 1831 the new town began to put on the airs of a village, though standing trees were not cut out of Michigan street until the next year, except as needed for fire-wood or fence rails. The Michigan road was cut out in 1832. This cleared the standing timber from Michigan and Water streets, and gave us all the room we needed for street purposes. All that part of the table land between the river and what we call the bluff was covered with a beautiful growth of oak and hickory -mostly burr oak from 40 to 50 feet high. By proper thinning out and careful preservation of the rest, South Bend might have made one of the most delightfully shaded towns in the United States.

"Among the leading men of 1830-'31 were Alexis Coquillard and Lathrop M. Taylor. They were the Indian traders. Coquillard at that time had charge of an Indian store owned by himself and Comparet, of Fort Wayne. It was successor to the American Fur Company's store. Taylor had charge of one owned by himself and Judge Hanna, of Fort Wayne.

"Samuel L. Cottrell moved into the St. Joseph valley as early as 1827. He was the first elective sheriff in the county. He was a large and powerful man and rather combative in his younger days. He served as sheriff two terms afterward. He was always regarded as an honest man, and faithfully and promptly discharged his official duties. St. Joseph county never had a better sheriff than Samuel L. Cottrell.

"There was considerable building in the new town in 1831, though the houses were small -mostly log cabins. Peter Johnson built a story-and-a-half frame house on the corner where Coonley's drug store now stands, in which he kept hotel for many years. Benjamin Coquillard also kept a house of entertainment at the junction of Pearl and Washington streets, and so did Calvin Lilley, on the ground where E. P. Taylor now resides, at the corner of St. Joseph and Pearl streets. Alexis Coquillard also commenced the erection of his new dwelling-house, the same now owned by Joseph Miller on Michigan street.

" In the spring of this year Peter Johnson built the first regular keel-boat for general freighting on the St. Joseph river. I do not remember her name, but I remember well seeing her launched. It was done with due ceremony. A man stood on the bow with an uplifted bottle of whisky, and as she sailed into the water, broke it over the bow, thereby insuring the boats future success. This boat did the freighting on the river that year and its share of business for many years afterward. The venerable Madore Crate, still living in our midst, was her captain. From that time until railroads were built into the St . Joseph valley, the river was the great highway over which the merchandise into and out of the county was transported. Several steamboats were engaged in the business from 1835 to 1852.

"Horatio Chapin also, at this time located in our midst. He started his goods from Detroit by way of the lakes as early in the spring as he could, but they did not reach here until July, when he opened the first general dry-goods store not connected with the Indian trade. He commenced business in a hewed-log cabin on St. Joseph street, on the lot where Mrs. Massey now lives. He was about twenty-eight years old, and as strict a Presbyterian then as when he died. I remember his goods came up the river on Saturday afternoon, and were immediately piled out on the bank of the river, but there were no teams to be had to haul them up to the store that afternoon. Next morning there were plenty, but next morning was Sunday, and no man or beast could work for him on that day. So the goods had to lie there, exposed to the weather, with nobody to look after them until Monday morning. He was one of that kind of men that if he said the horse was 16 feet high he would stick to it; at least he never would be argued out of it. If he changed his opinion it would be of his own volition, not from what anyone else would say. For the first year or two he did quite a thriving business, and then he was unfortunate in losing two stocks of goods on the lakes. He was the first county school commissioner, and as such had charge of the sale of the sixteenth section of school lands. This office was held by him for several years, and as long as he would keep it, always discharging his duties up to the spirit of the law; as he did everything else.

"To effect the removal of the county-seat from St. Joseph to South Bend, a donation of lots was made to the county by the proprietors of the latter place, to enable it to build county building, but there was a reservation of ten percent of the proceeds arising from the sale of the lots to be appropriated for a county library. This fund with some other was collected together, and Mr. Chapin appointed to select and purchase the books. He accepted the trust and faithfully executed it, and acted as librarian for many years without compensation. Many of those old books are now in the McClure Library. I had never seen a historical book before, except Weem's Life of Washington, and Horry's Life of Gen. Marion. Rollins, Gibbon, Plutarch, Josephus, and such works opened a new world to me. Though Rollins, Plutarch and Josephus may be full of fabulous stories, still I think they are capital good books for boys to read as well as men. After Mr. Chapin quit the mercantile business he was for a short time engaged in warehousing and buying produce. When the branch of the first State Bank was established here he was made its cashier, and continued in that office until its charter expired. He was a peculiar and remarkable character, very intelligent and thoughtful, always trying to live a strictly Christian life; yet his temper was so quick, and when excited so stubborn and self-willed, that one might as well attempt to reason with a statue as with him under such circumstances; but when undisturbed by conflict he was remarkably polite, kind and accommodating. He died a few years ago enjoying the confidence and esteem of all who knew him.

" It was in this year that John D. Defrees and Dr. Jacob Hardman came and settled among us. The doctor soon commenced the practice of his profession. The county was remarkably healthy for the first few years, but as the Doctor was the only physician within a range of thirty or forty miles he found enough to do. He is still living and looking about as young and frisky as ever, always ready to enjoy a good dinner, and takes a lively interest in the reminiscences of the past.

" In the fall of 1831 John D. Defrees and his brother Joseph established the first weekly newspaper published in Northern Indiana, called the Northwestern Pioneer. I think it was before any paper was published in Chicago or anywhere in Southwestern Michigan. They were practical printers, did their own type-setting and wrote their own editorials. The paper was regarded as ably conducted and popular with the people, yet it was a premature venture. There were not people or business enough to support it. After a struggle of a year or so its publication was suspended, and we were without a newspaper until 1836, when the Free Press was started by William Milligan, from which the Register is a lineal descendant.

"After the suspension of the paper, John. D. Defrees studied law, and in connection Thomas D. Baird got into quite a lucrative practice. But his strong inclination to mix in politics drew him from the Bar to the State Senate. After the expiration of his term he became editor of the Indiana Journal, and a noted politician throughout the State. Under the administration of President Lincoln he was elected Government printer at Washington. After filling that office with great credit to himself and advantage to the public service, he retired to private life.

"'When it was found that the paper would not pay, Joseph H. Defrees struck out for Goshen, where the county seat of that county had just been located. About all his worldly estate was then invested in a printing press and a small quantity of type, not a very flattering investment to raise money on, but Joe had a capital within himself which he did not then comprehend, but Co1. Taylor did. The Colonel proposed to furnish him with a small stock of goods to start as a merchant in the new town. He took them without being able to pay a cent down, or to secure any part of it. With this small beginning, he soon became the leading merchant in that county, and has ever since been regarded as one of its best and most respectable business men. He has represented his county in both branches of the State Legislature, and his district in Congress, with credit to himself and satisfaction to his constituency. He is still living, enjoying a well-spent life, and surrounded by a prospering and highly respectable family.

" The late Judge Elisha Egbert was another old settler of 1831, and was the first practicing lawyer who located in South Bend.

" James P. and Daniel Antrim were among the settlers in the fa1l of 1831. They started the next dry-goods store after Mr. Chapin. James P. Antrim was the first Probate Judge of the county. He was commissioned in January, 1833, and held the office until it was conferred upon Judge Egbert in 1834. He was considered a sensible, straightforward man. He was Justice of the Peace for several years afterward. To show how careful and faithful he was as a public officer, and as a lesson to justices of the peace at this day, I will mention that whenever a witness fee was paid in, he notified the witness of the fact or paid him the money as soon as he saw him. If it was not more than a quarter of a dollar he was sure to get it. It was not done for display, but it was his way of doing business. He moved away from here a great many years ago, and settled in Hamilton county, in this State, and was still living a few years ago. Daniel Antrim was quite a business man. He laid ant the town of North Liberty, and built a sawmill and grist-mill there, and by his energy gave his new town a brisk start in the world, but the hard times of 1838 struck him, spread out all his new enterprises, and before he could gather himself up he fell into the bankrupt stream, and soon floated off and out of sight, in company with other wrecks.

"John S. McClelland settled here in the latter part of 1831. He shortly afterward opened a store. He was a quiet kind of a man; did not talk much, but was enterprising and regarded as a man of good practical sense. At one time he was part owner and principal manager of what was called the new furnace at Mishawaka. In 1838, in connection with John Brownfield, he undertook to build glass works in South Bend. The buildings were erected out in the woods, about thirty or forty rods from where St. Patrick's church now stands. After the buildings were already for occupancy, the man who was to be their manufacturer of glass whimsically left them. The hard times and Mr. McClelland's death, soon afterward, put an end to the enterprise. It was said then, and I have no doubt it is true, that we have an abundance of the best quality of sand for making glass.

'"' The late Captain Anthony Defrees was also a settler of 1831. At that time there was quite a considerable stream of water starting out of the side of the bluff, a few rods up the river above the stand-pipe, and springs came out of' the bank all along the bluff at about the same elevation to where the bluff runs into the river below. It was one continual spirt of water, in an forming a constant and quite considerable stream at the foot of the bluff. The Captain concluded there was water enough, under a head of 16 or 18 feet, to run a woolen factory, if it could be collected together in a race on the side-hill below, where the water issued from the bluff. He went to work at it in the spring of 1832, and cut his race and soon had the water flowing through a flume at the expected elevation, but he soon discovered his race was filling up with sand. It was found impossible to keep the quick-sand back, and he was compelled to abandon the work at considerable loss. No one thought at that time of tackling the river and building a dam across it; so when the Captain's hydraulic project failed, the prospects of South Bend as a manufacturing center went down below zero.

The 22d of February, 1832, being Washington's centennial birthday, the South-Benders. held a meeting at the log schoolhouse, and were gratified with a very fine address for the occasion from Captain Defrees. In the fall of that year he moved out on his farm near town, where he lived for many years as an industrious and successful farmer. Occasionally he amused himself writing for the newspapers. He was an intelligent and thinking man, positive and decided in his character, never catering to any set of men or party, or in any way seeking popular applause. If anybody wanted his opinion they could have it, and if they did not like it they could let it alone and no harm done. He worried the storms of life until after he was 80 years old, and then was gathered to his fathers, bearing with him the esteem of all his acquaintances.

" Peter Johnson was another permanent settler of 1831. As I have before stated, he built and owned the first keel-boat used on the St. Joseph river for general freighting, and also one of the earliest in the hotel business, which he continued for many years, and while engaged in this business he kept his boat running on the river and acted as one of the Justices of the Peace of the township, and during the same time was engaged as a carpenter, building the best houses that were being then built in the town. He built and owned the first steam saw-mill that was ever put up in the county. He was the architect who erected the old courthouse, the walls of which were put up in 1832. He served one term of seven years as an Associate Judge of the Circuit Court. He was a good neighbor, a kind-hearted and peaceable man. After arriving at the age of nearly 80 years he departed this life, without leaving an enemy behind him.

"Samuel Studebaker ought not to be forgotten. He was no relation to the present family that I know of, but he had a good deal of their enterprise in him. He came here prior to 1831, and the first I knew of him he was residing on a farm now occupied by Mr. Wenger. He built one of the first saw-mills in the county. It was situated at the month of Bowman's creek, on the St. Joseph river. I think John Wedner got his mill at the mouth of Ullery creek before Studebaker. Along in 1835 or 1836 he got up a two and half story mill-house about a mile this side of Mishawaka, on the river bank, intending it for a grist-mill. He expected to get his power from the collection of the waters of the big marsh back of Mishawaka into a race carrying it to his mill, but he died before he got anything more done to it, and the mill-house was allowed to rot down. He was among the first to build in South Bend. He put up a house on the northwest corner of Michigan and Jefferson streets, before the county-seat was located here. He was a hardworking, plain and sensible man, and a very worthy citizen.

"John Massey settled here in the fall of 1831. He, in company with his brother-in-law, Samuel Eaton, started the first regular blacksmith shop. They were both industrious men and got plenty to do at good prices. The shop was on St. Joseph street, near Chapin's store. In a few years, by hard work, they acquired considerable property. Mr. Massey was afterward Tax Collector for the county, a duty which is now discharged by the County Treasurer. He was a quiet man, a good citizen, and above the average in business capacity.

"Nehemiah B. Griffith established the first licensed ferry across the St. Joseph river at this point. It was in 1831. He was a retired Methodist preacher, a man of a good deal of ability, and could preach a good sermon. Some people thought he was a little too sharp a business man for a good Methodist preacher.

" Simeon Mason was the first tanner. He built a tan-yard here as early as the spring of 1831, and I do not know but he commenced it in the fall of 1830. The water-works building is where his tannery stood. But tanning at that early day and in this county seemed to be an impossible business; at least he could not make it go very well. He quit the business and left a great many years ago.

"Edmond P. Tavlor is one of our oldest residents. He came here prior to 1830, and assisted his brother, L. M. Taylor, in the management of his Indian store. After L. M. Taylor went out of the dry-goods business, Pitts continued the same on his own account for several years at the old stand. He then wound up the business and commenced packing pork. He was the pioneer pork-packer, and devoted himself exclusively to that business for several years; then he went down on the race in the lumber business.

"Christian Wolf was the first hatter. He commenced business in the spring of 1831. His shop was a log cabin on Michigan street, about where John Klingel's store now stands. He was a goodhearted but very peculiar kind of a man. Old Judge Wade used to say to him that he had seen many a wolf, but that was the first Christian Wolf he ever saw. We generally called him “Governor”, after the then Gov. Wolf, of Pennsylvania. He was a most obstinate Democrat. The Washington Globe, then the leading Democratic paper in the United States, was his political bible. The National Intelligencer occupied about the same position in the Whig party. The two papers were of the same size and form, with very much the same typographical appearance. For the purpose of testing the Governor's political candor, the heads of the two papers were cut off and that of the Globe nicely put upon the Intelligencer and handed out of the post office to the Governor as his paper. He sat down and commenced to read it. A triad of friends were casting furtive glances at him without his knowing it. He read along a little while and would then look up to the head of the paper and assure himself that it was the Globe, and read again, but still look more confused and mystified than ever; then look up again at the head of the paper, and say to himself: ' Yes, it is the Globe, can it be that it, too, has turned traitor?' About that time there was a general explosion all around. The Governor rolled up the whites of his eyes, casting a glance around upon his spectators, and drawing his mouth up into a kind of doggish grin, squeaked out: 'You think you are smart, don't you?' The Governor went to California many years ago, and was a few years since residing near Sacramento, in comfortable circumstances.

"Samuel Martin was another one of the earliest settlers. In 1831 he laid off the first addition to South Bend, known as Martin's addition. He served as a Justice of the Peace for several years, and all the time that he lived here he was regarded by everybody as one of the best of men. He died some years since in California.

"William Stanfield was one of the settlers of 1831. He built himself a log cabin on Michigan street, on the lot now occupied by the Masonic Temple; also a log shop where he did general jobbing work, such as repairing wagons, stocking plows, and what other work he could do to make a living. He was a kind-hearted man, liberal to a fault. His house was the home of all the itinerant Methodist preachers in the country, and everybody was welcome to his table whether there was much on it or not. He moved to California in 1851 and died there. I think if there are any two men in Heaven from that State it is he and Samuel Martin.

"I have been under the impression that Tyra W. Bray carne here in 1832, but I am now satisfied it was in the year 1831. He was a native of North Carolina, and about as poor when he arrived here as a healthy, vigorous young man could be, with a wife and one child. He was stirring, energetic and public spirited, and soon became well known throughout the county -- always ready to take hold of and help every public enterprise without regard to any particular profit to himself. He was emphatically what people call 'a whole-souled, generous man.' His generous and benevolent disposition frequently led him into embarrassing engagements from which he often suffered pecuniary loss, but he was not the man to whine over it or complain about it, or to make it an excuse for abstaining from other enterprises looking to the public welfare. It would cure almost any croaker or grumbler to be in the company of Tyra W. Bray for one day. He was our first County Surveyor and held the office until 1837, when he was elected County Clerk over as good and well-known a man as Col. L. M. Taylor. In 1843 he was re-elected to the same office. In the fall of that year he and his wife started on a journey to North Carolina to make a visit to their friends - expecting to be absent three months traveling all the way there and back in a two-horse carriage. Who would think of taking such a trip now, for such a purpose? Railroads were then unknown in any of the country through which he had to travel. What a wonderful change in the facilities of travel has taken place since that time! He started off in the prime of life, healthy, hopeful and expecting a warm greeting from the friends of his youth; but on the third or fourth day of his journey he was seized with a violent attack of erysipelas, which ended his life in three or four days. He now lies buried at the little town of Burlington, on the Michigan road twenty miles south of Logansport.

"I find that I have made the same mistake in the date of the settlement of Robert Wade. He settled here in the year 1831 instead of the year 1832. I believe he was a native of Kentucky, but emigrated here from Wayne county, in this State, where he had for some years been a prominent citizen, holding the office of either Probate Judge or Associate Judge of the Circuit Court, and was therefore generally known as Judge Wade.

"It was understood when he came he had considerable money. The word "considerable" may be definitely understood by stating that we in those days considered one worth three or four thousand dollars and out of debt a rich man. At any rate he was regarded as a valuable acquisition to the people of the town. He soon began to buy lots and build houses. One amongst the first frame houses built in the town was put, up by him on what is now known as the Odd Fellows' corner. He also put a row of one-story log houses on Michigan street along where Hanon's stores are now situated, which were used for a variety of shops. He built several other buildings in different parts of the town; and at one time, perhaps, owned as many houses and lots as any other mall in the place; but while under the influence of an unfortunate habit a good deal of his property slipped away from him. He was a warm hearted, generous man, kind and indulgent to everyone, and universally recognized as an honest man. At an early period of the California excitement he emigrated to that country and I think he died there in 1852.

"Capt. Lot Day settled in this county in the fall of 1831 or spring of 1832. He also emigrated to this county from the southern part of this State, 'in yander on Whitewater.' His worldly possessions consisted principally in a large family of robust, healthy children, about equally divided as to gender. At first he engaged in farming. After a year or two he moved into town and went to brick-making and contracting for such job work as he could get to do. He was a man of more than an ordinary share of good common sense, public-spirited and patriotic. The Whigs of that day thought him a little slippery in politics, but in every other relation he was always regarded as an honest and upright man, a kind and good neighbor, ever ready at any moment to respond to the call of charity. By his kindness and shrewdness he soon gained popular favor, and in 1833 he was elected one of the Board of County Commissioners, and held the office by repeated elections until 1842, when he was elected Sheriff of the county. This office he held for two terms. In 1847 he was elected from this senatorial district, then composed of St. Joseph, Marshall, and Fulton counties, to the State Senate. He served out his term of three years, and shortly afterward moved to Oregon, where he lived for many years, following his old trade of brick-maker. Two or three years ago, after he had arrived at the age of eighty years, while on a visit to one of his sons in Nevada, he departed this life.

"There were other people living in South Bend in 1831 besides those I have mentioned. I can now remember only John D. Lastley, William Creviston, James DeGrote, Hiram Dayton, Joseph Haney, Levi Antrim, Louis Sancomb, William Wood, John Becroft, Peter Neddo, John A. Caine, Mr. Algo, Mr. Bobein, Andrew Mack, Mr. Cushman, Oliver Bennett, Calvin Lilley, Mr. Roof, and Solomon Barcdall."


As originally laid out by Alexis Coquillard and Lathrop M. Taylor, South Bend comprised twenty-six whole and twenty fractional blocks. The plat was recorded on the 28th day of March, 1831 According to the plat the town was located on the west and south bank of the" Big St. Josef" river. Since that time a large number of additions have been made, until it covers an extent of territory several times as great as originally made. The most important addition made to the town was that of the village of Lowell, which was annexed in 1868.


The population of South Bend has ever been on the increase. In 1831 the population of the town was 128. This was increased in 1840 to 728; in 1850 it was 1,653; in 1860 it was further increased to 3,832; in 1870 it had grown to 7,206; in 1880 it numbered 13,392.


The town was laid out and platted the 28th of March, 1831, but was not organized under town government until 1835, the first charter election being held October 3 of that year, at which time William P. Howe, Horatio Chapin, Peter Johnson, John Massey and James A. Mann were elected trustees. In 1837, E. P. Taylor was elected President of the Board and F. R. Tutt, Clerk. The organization was subsequently abandoned, and not revived until 1845. About a year previous a special charter was secured from the Legislature. The first meeting of the Board was held January 31, 1845, all the trustees being present, John Brownfield was chosen President, and Wi11iam H. Patteson, Clerk.

The first ordinance passed by the Board was to divide the town into five wards. The second appointed Drs. William A. Brown, Daniel Dayton, E. S. Sheffield, A. B. Merritt, Louis Humphreys and Mr. A. M. Lapierre and B. F. Mil1er, a Board of Health. This Board was appointed in consequence of the town being afflicted with the small-pox to such an extent that unusual sanitary precautions and police regulations became imperative. Their term of office was to continue so long as the epidemic prevailed in the town. The third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh ordinances were to empower the Board of Health to enforce all sanitary measures they deemed necessary to stay the epidemic.

John Hooper was appointed Marshal at this meeting, but only served four days, when Evan O. Johnson was appointed until the first Monday in March following.

The first annual election was held Monday, March 3, 1845, resulting in the election of John Brownfield, B. F. Price, William H. Patteson, Ricketson Burroughs and Joseph Andre, as Trustees. At this election 108 votes were polled.

The following is a list of elected and appointed officers of the town from 1845 to 1865, inclusive, with the exception of the years 1852 to 1857, the records of which are either lost or destroyed:
1845 - John Brownfield, President; Wm. H. Patteson, Ricketson Burroughs, B. F. Price, Abraham Wilson, Trustees; Charles M. Heaton, Clerk; Schuyler Colfax, Assessor; Albert Monson, Treasurer; William Snavely, Marshal.
1846 - John Brownfield, President; Lathrop M. Taylor, William H. Patteson, Harrison M. Crockett, Benjamin F. Miller, Trustees; Charles M. Heaton, Clerk; Albert Monson, Treasurer; Jacob Grassnical, Marshal ; Jacob Hardman, Assessor.
1847 – No election was held and officers held over.
1848 - J. A. Henricks, President; John Hooper, A. M. Lapierre, Benjamin Wall, John Becroft, Trustees; Charles M. Heaton, Clerk; John Brownfield, Treasurer; Daniel Dayton, Assessor; Charles B. Chandonis, Marshal.
1849 - No election.
1850 - S. W. Palmer, President; .John M. Veasey, D. P. Gerberck, Abraham Wilson, Trustees. (No election in second ward.) J. M. Veasey, Clerk; John Brownfield, Treasurer; Daniel Dayton, Assessor ; John Becroft, Marshal.
1851 - Matthias Stover, President; David P. Gerberck, Charles A. Stover, A. G. Deavitt, John Becroft, Trustees; Daniel Matthews, Clerk; Jacob Hardman, Assessor; John Becroft, Marshal; John Brownfield, Treasurer.
1858 - Henry Carleton, President; Jesse L. Walterhouse, Thomas S. Stanfield, E. Pitts Taylor, H. A. Finley, Trustees; Daniel Matthews, Clerk; O. Caldwell, Assessor; Charles Vinson, Marshal.
1859 - B. F. Price, President; John A. Remicks, Elmer Rose, George W. Matthews, Isaac Ford, Trustees; Daniel Matthews, 'J. Resigned and L. If. Taylor appointed to fill vacancy. Clerk; Daniel Dayton, Treasurer; John Caldwell, Assessor; William S. Saunders, Marshall.
1860 - B. F. Price, President; John T. Lindsey, E. P. Taylor, George W. Matthews, Dwight Deming, Trustees; Edwin E. Ames, Clerk; Daniel Dayton, Treasurer; Elisha Sumption, Assessor; William S. Saunders, Marshal.
1861 - E. P. Taylor, President; John O. Knoblock, John Hooper, Aaron A. Webster, Wright Clapp, Trustees; Edwin E. Ames, Clerk; Daniel Dayton, Treasurer; Charles M. Baker, Assessor; W i1liam S. Saunders, Marshal.
1862 - E. P. Taylor, President; John O. Knoblock, John Hooper, Aaron A. Webster, Wright Clapp, Trustees; George H. Alward, Clerk; Daniel Dayton, Treasurer; Elisha Sumption, Assessor; Daniel Hoof, Marshal.
1863 - John A. Henricks, President; Charles W. Martin, William Miller, John Ga11agher, Ulrich Foegley, Trustees; George H. Alward, Clerk; Elisha Sumption, Treasurer; C. William Price, Assessor; Evan C. Johnson, Marsha1.
1864 - J. A. Henricks, President; Charles W. Martin, William Miller, Esq., Aaron A. Webster, Ulrich Foegley, Trustees; George H. Alward, Clerk; George W. Matthews, Treasurer; Elisha Sumption, Assessor; Daniel Roof, Marshal.
1865 - Henry Carleton, President; William G. George, Thomas S. Stanfield, L. M. Staples, John Gallagher, Trustees; George H. Alward, Clerk; George W. Matthews, Treasurer; Elisha Sumption, Assessor; Daniel Roof, Marshal.

About the first of May, 1865, a large petition was presented to the Board of Trustees, asking that a special election be ca11ed to vote upon the question as to whether an organization should be effected under a general charter for the incorporation of cities.b The prayer of the petitioners was granted and an election ordered to be held May 22, 1865, for or against incorporation. The election was accordingly held, resulting in a large majority for incorporation.

At their meeting held the evening of the 22d of May, the Board divided the city into three wards as follows:
The first ward to embrace all that portion of said city lying north of the center Ene of Market street, and extending to the western boundary of the city."
The second ward to embrace all that portion of said city lying south of the first ward, and north of the center line of Wayne street, extending to the western boundary of the city.
The third ward to embrace all that portion of the city lying south of the second ward.
An election was ordered to be held on the 5th day of June, 1865, for city officers. The last meeting of the Board was held June 9, 1865. The last order passed was as follows: "Ordered that all officers of the corporation of the town of South Bend deliver to the proper officers of the city of South Bend all moneys and personal property belonging to said town now in their possession, for the use and benefit of said city.


According to the order of the Town Board, an election for city officers was held June 5, at which election 542 votes were cast. W. G. George was elected Mayor, together with a full Board of Councilmen and the various officers as provided by law. The first meeting of the council was held June 12, 1865. All the Board were present. The first business transacted was the selection of stated times for meeting of the council. William Miller moved the adoption of a seal for the city as follows: Around the margin the words "The City of South Bend, Indiana", and in the center the National flag surmounted with the Liberty Cap, the sun rising out of a cloud; above it the word" Peace," and underneath it the figures "1865."

The council elected Charles W. Guthrie Chief Engineer of the Fire Department, and Dr. I. N. Green, Clement Studebaker and Norman Eddy, members of the Board of Health.

The first ordinance passed by the City Council was one defining the limits of the City of South Bend, as follows:
Be it ordained by the Common Council of the City of South Bend: That the words" City" or" Corporation" wherever it may occur in this or any other ordinance hereafter ordained or established by said council, shall be construed to extend and apply to all that part of Portage township, St. Joseph county, State of Indiana, which was included within the limits of the town of South Bend, as defined by an ordinance of said town of South Bend passed August 26, 1859.

Since the organization of the city to the present time, the following officers have been elected:
1865 - Mayor, W. G. George; Clerk, George H. Alward; Treasurer, George W. Matthews; Marshal, Daniel Roof; Engineer, Washington Sannders; Assessor, Elisha Sumption; Councilmen 1st ward, William Miller, John Klingel; 2d ward, William Miller, Esq., Thomas S. Stanfield; 3d ward, John Gallagher and Israel C. Sweet.
1866 - Mayor, William G. George; City Judge, Alfred B. Wade; Clerk, John Hagerty; Treasurer, John H. Spain; Marshal, Jacob K. Huston; Street Commissioner, John A. Hartman; Councilmen -1st ward, William Miller, John Klingel; 2d ward, Thomas S. Stanfield, David Stover; 3d ward, Isaac Ford, Alanson B. Merritt.
1867 - Councilmen-1st ward, S. F. Myers; 2d ward, Thomas S. Stanfield; 3d ward; T. W. Defrees; 4th ward, Andrew Russwurm, Samuel Perry.
1868 - Mayor, Louis Humphreys; Clerk, David N. Rennoe; Assessors, Lee P. Johnson, Joseph B. Eakle; Marshal, George W. Fouke; City Judge, George H. Alward; Councilmen-1st ward, William Miller; 2d ward, William Miller, Esq.; 3d ward, Elliott Tutt; 4th ward, Samuel L. Cottrell.
1869 - Councilmen-lst ward, John H. Keedy; 2d ward, Thomas Stanfield, T. W. Defrees; 4th ward, A. Theodore Coquillard.
1870 - Mayor, Louis Humphreys; Clerk, David M. Rennoe; Treasurer, John G. Maugherman; Marshal, George W. Fouke; City Judge, George Pfleger; Councilmen -lst ward, William Miller; 2d ward, Lucius Hubbard, Clement Studebaker; 3d ward, Adam Barnhart; 4th ward, A. O. Staley.
1871 – Councilmen -1st ward, Irwin Skinner; 2d ward, Clement Studebaker; 3d ward, Elliott Tutt; 4th ward, A. Theodore Coquillard.
1872 - Mayor, William Miller; Clerk, David M. Rennoe; Treasurer, J. G. Maugherman; Marshal, J. A. Hartman; Assessor, Lee P. Johnson; City Judge, Mark Whinery; Councilmen -lst ward, Charles Hartman; 2d ward, John R. Foster; 3d ward, Alexander Staples; 4th ward, Nathan S. Marsh.
1873 – Councilmen -1st ward, Joseph Warden; 2d ward, Seeley R. King; 3d ward, William Simmons; 4th ward, Peter Webber.
1874 - Mayor, William Miller; Clerk, E. W. Hover; Treasurer, Jacob N. Massey; Marshal, Robert Hardy; Assessor, George W. Sumption; City Judge, John Hagerty; Councilmen -1st ward, Archibald Defrees; 2d ward, A. N. Thomas; 3d ward, M. N. Walworth; 4th ward, Simon Raff.
At the regular election this year a vote was taken as to the division of the third ward, resulting in a majority for the decision. The City Council then divided the ward making Lafayette street the dividing line, all territory upon the west side of that street constituting the third ward, and all territory upon the east side constituting the fifth ward. In the division it was found one of the aldermen already elected resided in the newly organized third ward, and the other in the fifth. A special election was then called for the election of an additional alderman in each ward, when T. N. Defrees was elected in the third ward and J. M. Asire in the fifth ward.
1875 – Councilmen -1st ward, Ricketson Burroughs; 2d ward, Robert Harris; 3d ward, A. J. Jacuith; 4th ward, Dwight Deming; 5th ward, Lester F. Baker.
1876 - Mayor, A. N. Thomas; Clerk, Edward W. Henricks; Treasurer, DeWitt o. Rush; Marshal George Bernhard; Councilmen-1st ward, Daniel Dayton; 2d ward, Edmund P. Taylor; 3d ward, W. W. Giddings; 4th ward, Louis A. Hall; 5th ward, N. R. Richardson.

1877 - Councilmen-1st ward, Ricketson Burroughs; 2d ward, George F. Nevins; 3d ward, Henry O. Crawford; 4th ward, Jonas Lantz; 5th ward, Solomon W. Palmer.
1878 - Mayor, Lucius G. Tong; Clerk, Edward W. Henricks; Treasurer, De Witt O. Rush; Marshal, Evan O. Johnsan; Assessor, William L. Farr; Councilmen -lst ward, Daniel Dayton; 2d ward, Nathaniel Frame; 3d ward, James Butler; 4th ward: Timothy E. Howard; 5th ward, Almond Bugbee.
l879 – Councilmen -lst ward, Sorden Liston; 2d ward, Joseph Henderson; 3d ward, W. \V. Giddings; 4th ward, John A. Neuperth; 5th ward, William S. Weaver.
l880 - Mayor, Levi J. Ham; Clerk, Frederick B. Williams; Treasurer, DeWitt C. Rush; Marshal, George Bernhard; Assessor, William L. Farr; Trustees Water-works- J. M. Studebaker, one year; Alex. C. Staley, two years; Jacob Strayer, three years; Councilmen-1st ward, Irwin Skinner; 2d ward, David Stover; 3d ward, James Butler; 4th ward, Timothy E. Howard; 5th ward, George W. Laughman.


South Bend was originally situated on a commanding bluff on the west bank of the St. Joseph river at its most southern point, and distant from Chicago eighty-five miles east, and west of Toledo one hundred and forty-three miles. Its site is elevated, being located on the water-shed between waters flowing northward to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and south into the Gulf of Mexico. The soil of the city is a sandy loam, and its surface level, making, with its height above the river, the best drainage and the finest natural streets found anywhere. The city is laid out with wide streets, and the enterprise of its first inhabitants have lined its spacious avenues with forest trees indigenous to the country, the maple, oak and walnut. The city has ever had a high character for health, and the purity and salubrity of the atmosphere, together with the romantic scenery in its vicinity, makes it a desirable locality in which to reside or to spend a few months.

The city is surrounded by a rich and highly cultivated agricultural region. The beautiful prairies of Terre Coupee, Portage, Harris, Palmer and Sumption are within the county, covered with productive farms, and celebrated for their large yield of all kinds of grain. South and southeast of the city are large tracts of heavily timbered lands, furnishing an abundance of the best walnut, cherry, poplar and oak lumber. The "barrens," as they are termed, in the immediate vicinity of the city, are well adapted to the raising of grain, and especially to the cultivation of fruits and berries. The deserved reputation of the fruits raised here, and the nearness to the great western markets, make it a profitable business. With the variety of soil, the fine climate, the nearness to market, the quantity of timber, the great educational advantages of the city, this country is far superior in advantages for both the agriculturist and the artisan, to the wide prairies of the farther West.

When the company, spoken of farther on in this work, purchased the land upon the east side of the river for the purpose of improving the water-power and the erection of buildings for manufacturing purposes, they laid out in 1837 a town opposite South Bend, to which was given the name of Dennison. In course of time the name of the place was changed to Lowell. Quite a thriving town was built up, and for some years the question of its annexation to South Bend was agitated, its interests being closely identified with the latter place. In December, 1866, the City Council of South Bend passed a resolution of annexation and Lowell became a part of the city of South Bend and formed the fourth ward.


In 1872 the question of water works for the city was agitated, and the local papers of the city were filled with discussions of the various systems proposed. One party was a strong advocate of the Holly system and another of the stand-pipe system. On the 20th day of March, 1873, the committee appointed and known as the Water Works Committee entered into a contract with certain parties for the Holly system, the works to be completed and in operation by September 15, 1873, the whole to be completed at a cost of $20,000.

Immediately after this contract was made a large meeting of citizens was held at Good's Opera House to protest against the action of the committee. Speeches were made by various parties, and resolutions passed in conformity with the views of those assembled. The election for city officers was soon to take place and citizens divided upon the question of the Holly versus the standpipe system of water works. The majority of the Board of Councilmen were in favor of the latter, and a contract was made in the summer following for the erection of the stand-pipe, and for laying of mains throughout the city. The whole work was placed under the supervision of John Birkinbine, who was assisted by his brother Harry. The contract made with representatives of the Holly system was ignored, and the work proceeded with. On Monday, November 17, 1873, the iron pipe was raised under the direction of Alex Staples, of South Bend.

The stand-pipe is erected upon a foundation prepared for it near the water works. The length of tube is 204 feet, diameter five feet, weight 43,382 pounds, and capacity 29,500 gallons. It is made of 108 plates of iron, fastened by 9,856 rivets, and has 1,300 feet of calked seams. The weight of the base casting is 10,920 pounds. With one exception, it is the highest stand-pipe in the world. The whole is encased with brick. Water is taken from above the dam by means of head gates and carried by a flume under ground to three wheel pits, in each of which is placed a sixty-six-inch "American" turbine wheel. The tail water is carried by means of a tunnel under the head race of the dam company discharging into the river below the dam.

The pumping machinery consists of three sets known as the Flanders pumps, manufactured by the Vergennes Machine Company, of Vergennes, Vermont, and are each capable of raising one million gallons to a height of 230 feet per day. Each set consists of two pumps working at quarter centers. Water is taken from the flume and discharged into a 12-inch pipe. The gearing from the wheels to the pumps consists of a pair of 30-inch bevel gears, one of them morticed, and a 20-inch spur pinion, driving a 60-inch morticed wheel.

The first test of the works was on Christmas day, 1873, and was perfectly satisfactory to the entire community. An amusing circumstance occurred in connection with the test. J. M. Studebaker had wagered Leighton Pine a cow that a stream of water could not be thrown so as to reach him in the cupola of the Studebaker Wagon Works. At the proper time Mr. Studebaker took his position, accompanied by Schuyler Colfax, when the signal was given and the water shot upward from the nozzle, and the occupants of the belfry beat a hasty retreat, to avoid getting a complete drenching. As it was, they looked as if they had been in a hard shower. The water was thrown far above the belfry and the judges there could see all the other streams, so Mr. Studebaker gracefully acknowledged that he had lost the wager and transferred an animated dairy to Mr. Pine. The cow was gaily decorated with ribbons, and, preceded by the band and a number of carriages filled with prominent citizens, marched down the street to Mr. Pine's residence.

While leading the cow down near Cushing & Co's corner, she made a lunge for the side-walk, and some officious individual seized her by the tail to help her off. To the astonishment and indignation of the crowd, he pulled so hard that her tail came off, but indignation soon gave way to laughter when it was ascertained that the cow had an abbreviated narrative, and had been decorated with a false tail for the occasion. The cow was afterward put up at auction to be sold for the benefit of the poor. The purchaser donated it back for the same purpose, and it was sold a number of times, realizing a handsome sum of money for a worthy object.

Until the spring of 1879 the works were under the control of the City Council, but now they are controlled by a Board of Trustees, consisting at the present time of J. M. Studebaker, A. O. Staley and Jacob Strayer. Everett L. Abbott, on the completion of the works, was appointed Superintendent and has been re-appointed each year. The original cost of the works was $150,000; present value, $200,000. The stand-pipe is visited daily by from 50 to 150 persons, who obtain from the top a magnificent view of the city and surrounding country.


A comparison of the old log school-house erected in 1831, with the fine buildings now in every ward of the city, will show a wonderful improvement. Compare also the methods of teaching of the teachers of that early day with those of the present, and likewise a wonderful change will be seen. The advantages of the present generation are hardly to be compared with those of the past. But the citizens of South Bend were never content to stand still in any enterprise, much less that which pertains to the cause of education.

The free-school system of this State began in 1853, since which time it has continued to grow more and more efficient. For many years the old county seminary and two or three private academies, in operation at different times, served the purpose of our present high school. In 1867 the graded school system was adopted, under the superintendency of Prof. Daniel Eyres. The high school comprises a course of four years' study, as follows:
1st year: 1st term-Arithmetic, grammar, physiology and composition; 2d term-Arithmetic, grammar, physical geography and composition.
2d year: both terms-Algebra, Latin or German, Rhetoric and history.
Junior year: 1st term-Geometry, astronomy, German or Latin (Cresar) and bookkeeping; 2d term-Geometry, natural philosophy, German or Latin (Cresar and Virgil) and zoology.
Senior year: 1st term-English literature, mental philosophy, geology, botany and Latin or German; 2d term-English literature, civil government, chemistry, botany, and Latin or German.

The first class graduated was in 1872, the second in 1874, since which time there has been a class graduated each year, the entire number of graduates being 57. There are two literary societies connected with the school. The following comprises the names of the graduating class each year, and the present occupation and address of each as could be obtained:

CLASS OF 1872.
Bartlett. Chas. H., Principal of High School South Bend.
Butts (Ellsworth), Ida Sti11water, Minn.
Green, William M., Prin. Island Grove School. Fort Edwards, N. Y.

CLASS OF 1874.
Bissell, Frank E., Civil Engineer S. P. R. R. Texas.
Burnett, Emma, Teacher South Bend
Harper, Libbie A. " " "
Miller (Shetterley), Anna M " "
Myers (Harris), Gertrude " "

CLASS OF 1875.
Bissell, Esse C., Assistant Principal High School South Bend.
Gish, Wm. D., livery business " "
Hibberd, John A., Lawyer " "
Warner (Beal), Mary E " "
WiJklow, Rebecca E., Teacher Le Grande, Oregon.

CLASS OF 1876.
Aspinwall, Mary, Teacher. South Bend.
Baker, Geo. A., boot and shoe dealer " "
Carder (Roberts), Lizzie Chicago.
Gallagher, Florence South Bend.
George, Rose P " "
Harper, Lilian " "
*Johnson, Nettie " "
Massey, Mamie " "
Meuler (Sack), Anna " "
Brugger (Schultz), Mary Alice, Teacher " "
Studebaker, Laura " "
Wheeler (Wellman), Maud Parsons, Kansas. Wilcox, Grace, Teacher, South Bend.

CLASS OF 1877.
Ford, Emma, Teacher South Bend.
Gallagher, Uhas. A., student of medicine " "
Henderson, Jacob, D., Deputy County Treasurer " "
Hibberd, Chas. B., with Logansport Journal Logansport. Ind.
Hingle, Amy E., Teacher South Bend.
Hockefaller, Sarah " "

CLASS OF 1878.
Deacon, Harry C., Tobacconist South Bend.
Lane, Charles H., Clerk Coquillard Wagon Works " "
Miller, Mary " "
Hose, Ida O., Teacher " "
Shively, Flora, student Mt. Holyoke Seminary, Mass " "
Tutt, Grace D " "

CLASS OF 1879.
Allen, Birdie South Bend.
Baker, John E., Bookkeeper " "
Lawton, Laura A " "
McDonald, Albert, Teacher. " "
Memhard, Lillie A., Teacher . " "
Ringle, Hester A . " "
Sack, Rosa A " "
Sack, Thekla E., Clerk . " "
Stephenson, Mary A., Teacher of Music . " "
Walworth, Mary L., student Oberlin College " "
White, Effie " "

CLASS OF 1880.
Brick, Abraham South Bend.
French, Minnie C " "
Gish, John L. " "
Higinbotham, Helen " "
Holloway, Kittie " "
Miller, Dora B " "
Studebaker, Lydia A " "
Walworth,Nettie " "

* Deceased.


The high-school building was erected in 1872, and is situated on Washington street. It is one of the handsomest structures of the kind in the State. It has a frontage of 90 feet and an extreme depth of 116 feet, with wings having a depth of 40 feet. It is four stories in height, including the mansard roof. The height of the deck of the tower is 100 feet, and affords one of the finest views in the city. The building is of white brick and Athens stone trimmings, the roof of slate, and the deck tinned. The inside finish is of a character to correspond with the outside, and the rooms are a11 heated by steam. The basement extends under the whole building and is eight feet deep. It is partitioned off into play rooms, wood rooms, two reservoirs holding 400 barrels each, and apartments for the steam heating apparatus. The first story has one room, 60x38; two, 36x29; two, 18x16-1/2; main hall, 49x12 feet, and two side ha11s, 20x8 feet. The height of the ceiling is 16 feet. The second story is laid off precisely as the first, with 16 feet ceilings. The third story has 12 feet ceilings, with an exhibition room 86-1/2x44 feet, and two toilet rooms 22x18 feet. The fourth story also has 12 feet ceilings, and has one room 24x15 feet, one 13x12, and one 9x8.

Three neat and commodious rooms are occupied by the students of the high school, the study hall, and the east and west rooms. The remaining apartments used by the high school are the library, the philosophical room, the laboratory, the two society rooms, and the main hall. The superintendent's room is on the first floor. The study hall and the east and west rooms are furnished with 258 single desks of the most approved pattern. The rooms are well lighted, the windows being furnished with inside blinds. The high school has the advantage of being centrally located; its grounds are ample and well kept; and, in short, nothing has been overlooked which could contribute to the health, comfort and enjoyment of the students. An upright piano lends additional interest to the chapel and literary exercises.

There are two societies connected with the high school - the Euglossian and the Cleosophic. They have become indispensable aids in the culture offered by this school.

Since the organization of the graded system the following named have served as Superintendent of the Public Schools for the city: Daniel Eyres, 1867 to 1868; L. E. Denslow, 1868 to 1869; N. K. Kidd, 1869 to 1871; David A. Ewing, 1871 to 1875; Alfred Kummer, 1875 to 1878 ; James DuShane, 1878 to the present time.

A good story is told on one of the foregoing named superintendents. This superintendent was a just and lenient man; forbearing toward a scholar who failed doing his best, but a terror to those evilly inclined. He had a way of looking a crowd of boys over keenly for a moment and picking out the hard cases, and his judgment was rarely at fault. He would quietly find out the names of those boys, and he never forgot their names or their faces. These boys knew him, too, and any of them would much rather skate or slide down hill than to be sent to him for correction with a line from their teacher. His look was enough to make a bad boy tremble, and when he used the rod, which he always abstained from doing when possible, the culprit got a "bulldoze" which lasted him for the term, if not the entire year. One afternoon three boys came to his room bearing a missive from their teacher. A glance at the subdued countenances before him and the note in their hands was enough. He was writing and concluded to finish his task before attending to the matter of punishment. "Sit down there," said he to the foremost boy, pointing to a spot on the floor close to the stove. "And you, and you," remarked he sternly, indicating places beside the first boy. They dropped down on the carpet and the writing went on, the pen of the superintendent striking off chirography beautiful as copper-plate, and with lightning-like rapidity. Presently he got up and put some fine hickory wood in the stove and opened wide the draft. One of the boys here undertook to speak. "Not a word out of you!" was the quick rejoinder; "I'll attend to your cases directly." Silence again reigned in the room unbroken except by the dancing of the superintendent's pen over his paper. The sheet-iron stove poured out the heat furiously. The boys were close to it and next to the wall. There was no escape. They began to pant. Then they opened their vests. Then they brought their hats in play to fan themselves, while the perspiration poured down their faces in streams. Finally they could stand it no longer and one of them broke out with-

"Please, sir, we hain't been doin' nothin'; we just come here on an errand for the teacher!"

The superintendent dropped his pen and took their note. It ran thus: "Please send some chalk; we are entirely out." The haste with which the draft of that red-hot stove was closed, and the boys were got off from the floor and seated on comfortable chairs, was a caution. The superintendent gave them a big apple apiece, and laughed the thing off with them as a good joke as best he could, but he was ever after a little distrustful of his ability to determine the exact contents of a note before seeing the inside of it.


In addition to the high school, there are six school buildings in various parts of the city. The Jefferson school building; was erected in 1866; has four main and two recitation rooms, and is valued at $10,000. The Madison building was erected in 1864, and has the same number of rooms and valued at $10,000. The Lafayette was originally built in 1854; was burned down and rebuilt in 1872. It has four rooms, and valued at $8,000. Laurel building, in 1871. This building has four main and two recitation rooms. The Coquillard was built in 1863; remodeled in 1871, and has four rooms. The South building was built in 1878, and has four rooms. The value of the Laurel is $8,000, and Coquillard and South, $6,000 each. Each of these buildings are of brick.


A superficial observer might be struck by the disparity between the enrollment and enumeration; 1,936 enrolled, 4,267 enumerated! It might look to him as though over half the school-going population were in the streets. But such is not the case. A great number of them attend private and denominational schools, and in the factories and manufacturing establishments are to be found many more. The bulk of the population of a manufacturing city is necessarily composed of laboring people whose energies are absorbed by the struggle for subsistence. The children of such are by circumstances debarred from higher educational culture. They have to be content with the merest rudiments of learning. It is therefore not a matter of wonder that the percent of children in the schools is not so great as, for example, in commercial or college towns. But though this is to be greatly regretted, it nevertheless gives such places a larger tuition fund in proportion to the children in actual attendance, and it should enable those who are privileged to attend the schools to enjoy even better advantages than where the tuition fund has to be eked out by direct taxation.


Under the management of Prof. Du Shane, with the assistance and hearty co-operation of a Board of Trustees alive to the importance of the work, the public schools have become very efficient, reflecting honor upon the superintendent, the trustees and citizens. At the present time 35 teachers are employed at an expense of $14,705 for the year; while the total expense for all purposes amounts to $22,000. The rate of taxation for school purposes has never been over 17 cents on the hundred dollars, ranging all the way down to 9 cents. There is at present a surplus in the treasury of over $20,000. John Klingel has been a member of the School Board since 1867, and is deserving of special mention in this connection.


The Board of Education is composed of the following named persons: G. F. Nevins, President; Elliot Tutt, Secretary; John Klingel, Treasurer; James Du Shane, Superintendent. During the school year 1880-'1, 35 teachers were employed.


For the school year commencing September, 1880, there were employed 35 teachers .as follows:
HIGH SCHOOL -James DuShane, Superintendent; Charles H. Bartlett, Principal; Essie Bissell and Eva Hill, Assistants; W. G. Schroeder, Special Teacher.

WARD SCHOOLS.- Washington.- Miss Alice Patterson, Principal; Miss Cora Epley, Upper Intermediate; Miss Grace Wilcox, Lower Intermediate; Miss Lida O. Murray, Primary.
Jefferson.-Mr. H. J. Burlingame, Principal; .Miss Kate Bowman, Upper Intermediate; Miss Kate A.. Thrush, Lower Intermediate; Miss Jennie Dickey, Assistant Lower Intermediate; Miss Eliza Ebberson, Primary.
Madison.-Miss Kate E. Merrifield, Principal; Miss Libbie Allman, Upper Intermediate; Miss Laura Marsh, Lower Intermediate; Miss Lizzie Greene, Primary; Miss Minnie Scott, Assistant Primary.
Lafayette.-Mr. Frank Conklin, Principal; Miss Ida Weaver, Upper Intermediate; Miss Fannie Spain, Lower Intermediate; Miss Jennie Betts, Primary.
Laurel.-Miss Lodema Dragoo, Principal; Mr. John Hibberd, Upper Intermediate; Miss Alberta Jones, Lower Intermediate; Miss Sarah Johnson, Primary.
Coquillard.-Miss Carrie Sharpe, Principal; Miss Mary Durant, Upper Intermediate; Mr. Lewis F. Meyer, Lower Intermediate; Miss Ada Purdy, Primary.
South.-Mr. Albert McDonald, Principal; Miss Minnie Garrett, Upper Intermediate; Miss Emma Ford, Lower Intermediate; Miss Anna E. Lyon, Primary.


The first building erected for manufacturing purposes was that known for years afterward as the "old glass house." It was a frame, erected in the year 1836, and was about 60 by 80 feet, with a wing. A company was formed for the manufacture of glass, consisting of John Brownfield, John T. McClelland and Johnson Horrell. They were induced to engage in , this enterprise by the persuasion of S. Johnson, who was a practical glass-blower, and who had just arrived from the East. He found an excellent sand here, some of which he successfully experimented with, and he became enthusiastic on the subject, and succeeded in imparting enough of his enthusiasm to the gentlemen named to induce them to furnish the necessary capital; but after the building was erected it was found that the clay, such as is used in glass-making, could not be obtained, except at a price so high, including transportation, that the business would be unprofitable, and the enterprise was consequently abandoned. The building remained unused, except for public meetings, and by the boys for Sunday ball-playing, until the winter of 1837, when the roof fell in from excessive weight of snow. The ground was afterward laid out into lots, and is today covered with residence buildings, so that it is hard to tell the precise location of the first building for manufacturing purposes, but it was near the crossing of Division and Gen. Taylor streets.

"A bad beginning sometimes has a good ending" is fully exemplified by reference to the manufacturing interests of South Bend, which now flourish upon every hand ..


The first determined effort at utilizing the great water-power afforded by the St. Joseph river, was made by Joseph Fellows, Garrett V. Dennison, Thomas W. Alcott, James McKower, William J. Worth, and John Van Buren, all of the State of New York. They purchased in 1835, from Alexis Coquillard, and in 1837 COmmenced digging a race. They had a large quantity of timber in readiness for building head-gates, locks, and other purposes, when the scheme suddenly collapsed in consequence of the hard times, which prevailed at that time, especially in the East. One of the conditions of the sale which Mr. Coquillard made to the company named was that they should build a dam, dig a race, and make certain other improvements. The conditions not being complied with, Mr. Coquillard sued for the recovery of the property. Judgment was obtained by him in the lower court, but an appeal was taken by the company to the Supreme Court. After dragging along in that court for several years, a decision was finally reached, and the judgment of the lower court sustained. Mr. Coquillard, when he obtained possession of the property, made large improvements on the race. This property was afterward purchased by Samuel L. Cottrell and others, and finally, in 1867, it was purchased by the South Bead Hydraulic Company, representing a capital of $100,000. This company was organized in 1861, and in the spring of 1868 completed and improved the race, and began letting the power to those who would use it for manufacturing purposes.

A charter was obtained in December, 1842, from the Legislature of the State, for the organization of the South Bend Manufacturing Company, and in February, 18:1:3, the first election of officers was held, resulting in the election of Thomas W. Bray, President; George W. Matthews, Secretary; Abraham R. Harper, Treasurer.

In the spring of 1843 this company began the construction of a dam across the river, and also of a race upon the east side. The dam and race were both completed the following year. The first persons to avail themselves of the power were Abram R. and John H. Harper, who built upon the race a saw-mill. The second use made of the power was also for running a saw-mill. This latter was built by William Stanfield, and is yet in successful operation, and now owned by E. P. Taylor, Finley & Brown came next and established a factory for the manufacture of tubs and buckets. Just after getting the factory in operation it burned down and was never rebuilt. The first grist-mill erected and run by this power was also owned by A. R. & J. H. Harper. This is now known as the Keedy Mill, and owned by the Phoenix Milling Company, composed of Landon, Corbin & Foote. A woolen mill was also erected at an early day on the same ground now occupied by the Variety Bracket Works, but did not prove a successful business venture. Other factories sprung up one after another and lined both the east and west race; and not alone in this section, but in various parts of the city were works erected, machinery set in motion, and articles of manufacturing skill turned out and sent into every part of the civilized world.


In 1852 dates the real beginning of what is now known as the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the world, the success of which is indeed marvelous. The man who laid the foundation for this grand success was JOHN STUDEBAKER. He was a native of Pennsylvania. He served, as the custom there was, a six-year apprenticeship at wagon-making in Gettysburg, where in 1818 he made his "first genuine Studebaker wagon." Eighteen years after, in 1836, he came to the then "Far West" in to Ashland county, Ohio, and here, joining to what he had by closest economy laid up by his own labor, the inheritance he bad received from his father's estate and that from marriage, he purchased quite a large tract or farm. He began the work of improving it with great interest, and promised to himself and family, doubtless, much pleasure for his future home and comfort there. But his pleasurable anticipations of coming ease and good fortune were of short indulgence. He had, just before leaving Pennsylvania. been led, in the sympathy and kindness of his heart, to lend the use of his name to some of his neighbors in the day of their pecuniary trouble. The panic of '37, the following year, swept over the State, and among those who failed were those for whom he had endorsed notes. The consequence, which speedily followed him to his new home, was the attachment and sale by the sheriff of his new home and all his personal effects, thus by one blow sweeping all his earthly possessions, leaving him quite penniless to begin again life's labor and trials anew. The years of toil and poverty which followed these great misfortunes of the parents are reviewed by those worthy sons with great feeling and tenderness of affection.

But John Studebaker knew too we1l how his fortune had come to be found sitting down idly, and groaning and brooding over his sad lot, and, therefore, we are told he at once opened a wagon repair and blacksmith shop, and toiled at the bench and the forge from four o'clock in the morning until nine at night, “I tell you”, said the youngest of these brothers, "there was no ten or eight hour system then; it was work, work, for as many hours each day as thews of iron could stand the strain. And such a thing as money was almost unknown. It came in what was called 'store pay,' and it was my duty; while the older brothers worked at the forge or bench, learning the trade, to ride around the country in a home-made wagon and gather the ‘store pay,’ that consisted of butter, eggs, and other country productions."

John Studebaker was one of those old-fashioned dealing men and generous to a fault. One of his most marked traits was his unbounded hospitality, which was only limited by his means to grant it. With a family of ten children, five boys and five daughters, his long days of hard labor were no more than sufficient to keep up their support. In those days emigrants passed West in wagons, and so great was his hospitality to these strangers that he has been known to fill his beds and cover his floor with them - take them in until he could take no more - and sit up all night to keep up fires to make them comfortable. He became so popular that the little inn at the four corners had to close on this account.


Not long after the father's struggles with poverty had begun anew, a successful German farmer whom his father-in-law had befriended in paying his passage from the old country, learning of the sad reverses, invited him to send his sons over to help him in his harvesting, for which they should receive good wages. They went 60 miles, and, after three weeks, returned home with about $ 75. " And that," said one of them, suggested the partnership enterprises that have followed, and to which we owe whatever of success we have achieved." From this, and from the beginnings of, perhaps, a very large minority of the builders of great fortunes, we could peruse and write a homily on the text, " Despise not the day of small things."

With the wearying, exhausting labors of years following this failure of 1837 came no cheer and hope for a better condition, and therefore in 1848 he concluded to come farther West on horseback, in order to examine the country. He returned, and at once made preparation to move out here to South Bend, then a village of 1,200 inhabitants. Two wagons, made by himself and boys, brought all his worldly goods, among which and of greatest value, were two sets of tools for wagon-making. He bought a shop for $50, but after carrying on the work for four years,being worn out by many years of excessive labor, he relinquished the active business of wagon-making to his eldest sons, Henry and Clement.

U. and H. Studebaker, both good mechanics, formed the first partnership for manufacturing, and by doing much of the mechanical work themselves, under the oversight of their father, who also acted as their agent upon his annual journeys to the great meetings of the Dunkards (of which he was an influential member), they turned out, beside their repair work, five wagons. The business developed gradually larger until in 1857 the partnership was estimated at $10,000. At this time Henry withdrew, and made purchase of a 200-acre farm, upon which he still lives satisfied with his comfortable competency and freedom from the great business cares by which his brothers have amassed great wealth. As the business grew the other brothers were drawn into it, and Peter, having been a merchant and trader, seemed to infuse a speculative spirit his brother did not possess, and began at once planning to branch out and widen the field of their operations. One of the first things he did was to open a branch office at St. Joseph, Mo., "then the outfitting station for parties crossing the plains." And from here Peter sent in almost innumerable orders for Studebaker wagons.

The contracted, ill-fitted wooden building gave way to fine, large brick structures. From this time on, business and buildings alike rapidly grew apace until immense two, three, four and five-story buildings covered several squares. But still cramped for room they found that they must extend the wagon-making department beyond the town limits" that no pent-up Utica might contract its powers." It is near the depot, and upon the line of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad, from which side tracks run into the grounds, delivering iron, coal, lumber, right at the "doors of the factories, and taking the finished work from the warerooms. In 1874 these buildings and a great amount of finished stock was burned. Chicago, Cincinnati and many other cities made large bids to attract the firm to locate the new buildings, but their social and business ties and large property interests, together with all the memories of their business career and successes here, respectfully declined all the tempting offers from abroad.


The works were rebuilt upon even a more extensive scale than before. Upon entering South Bend the traveler will notice a great number of very large and really beautiful buildings, bearing the immense sign, "Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company Established 1852-Laoo:r omnia vincit." These buildings, with an average height of three stories, cover, together with lumbersheds, stacks, etc., 27 acres. It takes three miles of belting to run the vast combination of machinery. The two main driving belts, on two Brown engines of 400-horse power each, are of double leather thirty-six inches wide, and contain the hides of forty-four oxen. Last year there were 20,000 vehicles built in these works, thus averaging one turned out every nine minutes, calculating ten hours for each day's work. For these, 12,500,000 feet of lumber has been used, loading 2,083 cars, to haul which would require fifty locomotives with over forty cars each; 3,000 tons-300 car-loads-of iron; and in varnish 15,000 gallons alone were used. Seventy-five different styles of vehicles are built here, and there is a finished assortment equal to two thousand complete wagons kept in stock, with a capacity to turn out 100 wagons in a single day. It is claimed that already has the Studebaker Company made enough wagons "to stretch with their teams across the continent and back again from New York to San Francisco." They have repositories in the leading cities of the West, and agents in every city and town in the land. As one has well said, "There appears to be no limit to their production, and no end to the demand."

In no way can be given a briefer or more comprehensive view of the gradual and steady development and growth of this great house than by presenting the following table, showing the production of farm and freight wagons from 1868 to 1879 inclusive:

1868 3,955
1869 5,115
1870 6,505
1871 6,835
1872 6,950
1873 10,280
1874 11,050
1875 15,000
1876 16,250
1877 17,500
1878 18,000
1879 20,000
Total. 137,440

The number of hands have increased in the same proportion, from 190 in 1868 to 800 in 1879.

In 1865 A. Coquillard established here a factory of modest pretensions, with a capacity fur manufacturing one hundred wagons per year. He had at the outset to meet with competition from houses long established and with agencies scattered throughout the country. In the face of competition and in spite of the gradually increasing stringency of the times, the business has been successfully prosecuted, and by degrees the annual production has swelled until now the capacity of the works is not less than 3,500 vehicles per year, employing in their construction 125 hands. The product of the factory now goes throughout the whole country, North, South, East and West. In 1875 Mr. Coqui1lard completed one of the finest factories in the city. The building is of wood, four stories high, strong and convenient, with an attractive exterior. It has a frontage of 78 feet on Market and 66 feet on Mill street. It is devoted entirely to the manufacture of the wooden portions of the wagons and other vehicles. The motive power here used is an American turbine water-wheel, 66 inches in diameter, and of 110-horse power. On the corner of Water and Lafayette streets, Mr. Coquillard occupies three quarters of an acre, on which are located smith, paint and finishing shops, offices, repository, storerooms and sheds. The main structure is of brick. with a frontage 66 feet on Lafayette and 78 feet on Water street. A sketch of Mr. Coquillard is found elsewhere in this work.


The St. Joseph Reaper and Machine Company of South Bend commenced the manufacture of the South Bend chilled plow in 1876, and in that year distributed only 650, which were considered little more than specimens to advertise among farmers their merits. The business of the second year, notwithstanding they suffered the disaster of a fire, was quite large, the company selling 4,672 plows, an increase of over 700 per cent., and leaving many orders unfilled. On the first day of July, 1878, the company was reorganized under the name of the South Bend Chilled Plow Company, with Adam S. Baker, President; J. C. Knoblock, Treasurer; George W. Baker, Secretary. This year the sales of the company were over 10,000. In 1879 there were sold 35,000. In 1880 will be manufactured 50,000. The works of this company are located on Washington street, one mile west of the court-house, on the site of the old Northern Indiana College. One hundred and fifty men are now in the employ of this company.


From an interview with James Oliver, the inventor of the chilled plow, as published in the Inter-Ocean, the following extract is taken:

"I was born on the 28th day of August, 1823, at the family homestead of Whitehaugh, Lidisdale Parish, Roxburgshire, Scotland. While yet a mere boy my parents decided to try their fortunes in the New World, and the year 1835 found us located in Seneca county, New York. I found employment with a neighboring farmer, at the wages of fifty cents a week, and I remained with him until the fall of 1836, when the family came West, and I with them, and settled at Mishawaka . I soon found work as a chore boy for Mr. Philo Hurd, besides sawing wood for him and two other families, and earned that winter $15. In the summer of 1838 I became an apprentice to Mr. A. Sandiland, who was building Fox threshing machines. From there I went to work in a blast foundry in Mishawaka, owned by the South Bend Iron Works of that day, and superintended by Mr. Richard Inwood, who is now a resident of this city. This company wound up its affairs in 1840, and now, at the age of 17, I was once more thrown upon my own resources. That fall I took a job of ditching to lay water pipes for a distillery, then building by the Lee Brothers, of Mishawaka, and I continued with them at $15 a month (boarding myself) until I could see a better opening, meantime learning the cooper's trade."

But even here Mr. Oliver had to stop and pay a tribute to his wife, whom he alluded to as "the noble little woman who has sympathized with and cheered me in my troubles, and rejoiced with me in my successes. I can truly say, that choice was the crowning success of my life. All honor to my wife. After marrying, my own house being rented, I paid $12 to a fellow workman for a small shanty which he had built on the bank of the river on some land belonging to Eastern parties. I spent $18 in improvements. My wife borrowed a loom and made a rag-carpet for our new home. A1though I have lived in better houses since then, I often look back to that time as the happiest of my life."

Owing to the dullness of the coopering business, Mr. Oliver determined to learn the trade of a molder, and accordingly went to work for the St. Joseph Iron Company. In 1853 he was given a difficult contract for making cast chairs for the Michigan Central Road, and carried it through successful1y. In 1855 he began the manufacture of plows on a small scale at South Bend. The success of this enterprise is better described in his own words:

"We were now fairly launched in business and I had accomplished a part of my long-cherished idea, yet very soon found out it was not all glory doing business for one's self. True, we did all of our own work, but at the best, that was not much. Our casts ran but three heats a week, and only amounted to from 1,500 pounds to one ton. Our money was soon exhausted, and our surroundings not being of that inviting character to induce capitalists to invest, we were truly in a most unenviable state of affairs, when to crown all our misfortunes, a tremendous freshet swept the dam away and flooded the furnace."

But he managed to weather this misfortune, and soon afterward bought a horse and wagon, that he might sell and deliver plows outside of South Bend. Of this Mr. Oliver said: "I found it uphill work delivering all my plows and repairs personally; still I kept at it, and by dint of hard labor very soon had eighty agencies established within a radius of fifty miles. We worked hard, and did all in our power to make it pay, yet the cost of delivery and the com mission paid to agents left our margin of profits very small indeed. "

But years rolled on, and the plow business increased, and during the whole of this time Mr. Oliver had never ceased thinking and studying over the one great object of his life-the production of a complete chilled plow, an implement to produce which fortunes had been unsuccessfully spent during the twenty-five years previous. In alluding to this period of his life, the inventor said: "Nothing daunted, I determined to solve the mystery. When I announced my determination people held up their hands in admonitory horror and regarded me with feelings of astonishment not unmixed with contempt, which latter they were free to express. Plowmen who had spent years in experimenting and abandoned the project of a complete chilled plow as impossible, advised me not to undertake it. Those who had aided me with money and influence forsook me, and I was classed with the fools who pursue the fallacy of perpetual motion. Although feeling keenly the cuts of former friends, I determined to succeed. Day and night, for years, I thought of nothing else, and made everything bend to this one great object of my life. My first success was attained when I adopted the plan of using hot water in the chills which dried the moisture in the flasks and prevented "blow holes." My next was a method of ventilating the chills by grooves along the face of the mold, which allowed the escape of the gases that form within the flasks when melted iron is poured in, and thus permitted the liquid metal to come in direct contact with the face of the chill and all its surface, thus removing all the soft spots in the moldboards and leaving the surface smooth and perfect. But my crowning success was the discovery of the annealing process, which deprived the metal of its brittleness. When I made that I could justly claim that for the first time a full, perfect and complete, chilled plow had been made."


The foundry as used at present is 500 feet in length by 160 feet in width. The new addition to the foundry, upon which the brick work was proceeding when we were there ten days ago, and which will be completed and occupied within 30 days, is 500 feet long by 60 feet wide. This will make the foundry 500 by 220 feet in size. They are now running daily three cupolas, with a melting capacity of 50 tons of iron. In 30 days another 20-ton cupola will be added, making a melting capacity of 70 tons daily. The help employed in the foundry is 150 molders, and 50 helpers and laborers. The total capacity for production daily is 500 plows completed, and 4,000 points.

The grinding room is 300 feet in length by 60 feet wide. Help employed here, 100 men. Grindstones running, 89. Capacity of this department is 500 plows and 4,000 points daily. The machine and forge shops are 200 by 60 feet, and employ 75 men. The dry grinding room is 200 by 60 feet, with 25 men. The polishing room is 200 by 50 feet, and employs 25 men. The wood shop is 200 by 50 feet, and here 50 men are employed. The daily capacity of the wood-working shops are 500 plows. Bending room, 200 by 50 feet, and same capacity daily. Paint room 300 by 60 feet, divided by brick fire walls into three sections of 100 feet each. Men employed here, 25.

The warehouse and shipping depot is 1,200 feet long by 40 feet wide. Along these warehouses on either side are side tracks of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad, and that of the Northwestern and Grand Trunk railroad, making- splendid shipping facilities. The storage capacity here is 50,000 plows and half a million points. Here 20 men are constantly employed. The four beam sheds are each 480 by 30 feet, and each capable of holding 125,000 plow beams. The engine room is 24 by 56 feet, and supplied with a Corliss engine, the finest in the West, of 700-horse power. Boiler room, 50 by 75 feet, furnished with the latest improved sectional boilers.

The great factory has 1,794 feet of line shafting. There is one continuous section of shafting 467 feet in length, which is probably the longest in the West. There are 60 counter shafts, and 671 bearings to be oiled daily. The immense establishment occupies 5,314,600 square feet of ground. There are 520 operatives on the pay rolls, besides clerks, salesmen and other employees, a total of 600 men.


In 1856, in the small town of West Henrietta, New York, J. C. Birdsell began the manufacture of a clover separator and thresher. Remaining at West Henrietta until 1864, the works were removed to South Bend, the cheaper freights and abundance of timber being the considerations, and in 1866 J. B., V. O. and B. A. Birdsell became co-partners under the style of J. J. C. Birdsell & Sons. In 1870 the co-partnership was merged into a joint stock concern, under the name of the Birdsell Manufacturing Company, with a capital of $50,000. In 1871 the capital was increased to $100,000, and in 1872 to $150,000. George V. Glover became connected with the company in 1873. The works are located at the corner of Division and Columbia streets, and were erected in 1872 at a cost of $118,000. The main building is 165 x 05 feet, five floors; the foundry is 40 x GO feet, and blacksmith shop the same size, besides which there are offices, sheds, etc.


In January, 1868, a company was organized with a capital of $50,000, for the purpose of supplying the city with gas. The works were located on lots 105 and 100, at the foot of Jefferson street, near the river. John A. Henricks, Thomas S. Stanfield, Clem Studebaker, H. Baker and O. S. Witherell composed the first Board of Directors. T. G. Turner was elected Secretary and Treasurer. On the first day of December, 1868, the works were completed and the city was lit up with gas. The company started in with four miles of main, 84 consumers and 30 public lamps. This has been increased until now there are seven miles of main, with 371 consumers and 119 public lamps. The gas furnished is 16 candle power and made from the second pool Youghiogheny coa1. An average of 28,000 feet of gas is consumed per day. The officers in 1880 are C. Studebaker, President; J. M. Studebaker, Secretary and Treasurer; John Drew, Superintendent.


Since the completion of the dam across the St. Joseph river, as well as the east and west race, various manufactories have been established, some of which have lived and flourished, while others, from some cause, have existed but a short time; but where one failed another has quickly taken its place, and notwithstanding the depression of the times from 1873 to 1879, the number and value of their products constantly increased. Furniture factories, iron foundries, bracket works, woolen mills, flouring mills, croquet works, paper mills, file works, and other manufacturing interests have sprung up until nearly every branch of industry is now represented and 2,500 men find constant employment at remunerative wages. In 1865, when all manufactured articles were valued at double what they now bring, the sales of the manufacturers of the city reached $565,000. The products now annually made will reach $5,000,000.


The first organized effort at protection from fire was in 1853. A small hand-engine was purchased and a company was organized as "St. Joseph, No.1," with E. P. Taylor, Foreman; John Caldwell, Assistant. This company had a very large membership; many who are now staid and dignified men were then proud to "run with the machine." Very soon after the organization of this company another was formed with Lot Day, Jr., as Foreman. In 1857 another engine was purchased and "Union Hose Company, No.3" was organized. These engines did duty until 1865 when a steam engine was purchased, which was given the name of "Young Hoosier." In 1873 the City Council organized a regular fire department and appointed Edward Nicar as Chief Engineer. Captain Nicar occupied the position of Chief for three years, when Joseph Turnock received the appointment from the council, and served one year. O. H. Brusie was his successor, and served three years, and was succeeded by A. B. Culver. The department at present is composed of the following companies: Delta Hose Company, No.1, Eagle, No.2, Union, No. 3, Young Hoosier, No.4, Mazeppa, No. 5, Stand-Pipe, No. 6, and Relief Hook and Ladder Company.

The different hose companies have taken part in several touraments, invariably being successful in taking and carrying off prizes.


When in January, 1831, Rev. N. B. Griffith came to South Bend there was not a church edifice here, nor even in the entire county. A few Catholic priests had previously been here and a mission started in the neighborhood of Notre Dame, but no effort had been made to unfurl the banner of the cross in the town of South Bend. A class of earnest and devoted Methodist brethren was formed in April, 1831, and a few Protestants of other denominations united with them, and thus began an effort for the salvation of men in this community. As the county became settled, and the town increased in population, other re1igious bodies were formed, until today there are seventeen organizations represented in the city, nearly all of whom have commodious houses in which to meet for worship.


The first religious exercises held by the Methodist Episcopal denomination was on the evening of January 30, 1831. Early in April Rev. N. B. Griffith organized a class, consisting of Samuel Martin and wife, Benjamin Potter and wife, Benjamin Ross and wife, Rebecca Stull, and Simeon Mason, of which class Martin and Ross were appointed leaders. In June, 1831, William Stanfield and wife came to South Bend and were added to the class by certificate and Stanfield was soon afterward appointed leader. About the same time Samuel Newman and wife were also added by letter. In August, 1831, Dr. Jacob Hardman, and a few months later Samuel Good were also added. The first report of this mission made to the Conference was in 1832, when it was reported as having 180 members, few of whom resided in South Bend, the district being a large one. South Bend still remained as part of a circuit until 1844, and had as pastors during that time Revs. N. B. Griffith, R. S. RobinSon, George M. Beswick, Boyd Phelps, T. P. McCool, S. R. Ball, J. Wolf, James S. Harrison, David Stiver, William M. Foley, W. Griffith, Zachariah Gaines, William T. Huffman, E. Holstrick and S. B. F. Crane. In 1844 it was made a station, since which time there have served as pastor, Revs. John H. Bruce, John B. DeMott, Milton Mahon, John P. Janes, T. C. Hackney, Henry C. Benson, E. S. Preston, James Johnson, James C. Read, A. A. Gee, C. S. Burgner, William Wilson, Joseph O. Reed, G. Morgan, S. T. Cooper, Clark Skinner, C. A. Brooke, John Thrush, J. H. Swope, G. M. Boyd, H. A. Gobin, J. C. Stevens and S. P. Town.

In 1835 a house of worship was erected, but being badly constructed, was not accepted from the contractors. Previous to this time meetings were held in the old log school-house and in private houses. The second story of a house on the corner of Pearl and St. Joseph streets was now fitted up as a school room, and there the Methodists held their meetings. On the 5th of March the trustees met and resolved to erect a frame church 35x45 feet, and 14 feet ceiling. In June a lot was purchased, and on the 6th of July a contract for building and plastering was let. In February following it was discovered that the church was built on the wrong lot, which caused considerable trouble, but finally an exchange was effected and the building permitted to stand, and early in the fall of 1836 it was finished and occupied.

In 1850-'51 a brick church, 48x72 feet, was built on the corner of Main and Jefferson streets, and was dedicated by Dr. Berry and John L. Smith on the 17th of August, 1851, the basement having previously been occupied for several months. In 1869-'70 the church edifice was enlarged, remodeled and modernized. The basement was finished and occupied Dec. 25, 1869, and the main audience room some months afterward.


The Christian Church, of South Bend, was first organized in the summer of 1844, four miles north of the city, with a membership of twelve. W. McIlvaine was appointed elder, and meetings were held every Lord's Day, the Church enjoying occasionally preaching by John Martindale, Reuben Wilson and others. In the spring of 1851, through the efforts of Elder McIlvaine, the old South Bend Seminary was obtained, and worship commenced with weekly meetings. Gideon Drapier was chosen elder, and E. A. Drapier and R. Wilson, deacons. The total membership now numbered 15. These few members, though meeting with many trials and difficulties, continued to struggle for an existence, and by their untiring, industry and zeal succeeded in procuring the necessary means with which to purchase a lot on Main street, where they built a brick church edifice, which was formally opened in the spring of 1852, Elder John O'Kane, of Indianapolis, officiating. The Church now began to prosper, receiving frequent accessions to its membership. About the year 1854 several brethren from New Jersey united, among them Frederick J. Thomas, who was chosen elder, and labored during the fall and winter of 1855-'56. The church also enjoyed the ministrations of W. J. Homer, under whose supervision a successful protracted meeting was held. Elders Thomas and McIlvaine officiated during the succeeding two years. J. Belton was called to the pastorate in 1865, serving about three years. He was succeeded for a short period by H. N. Lord and W. B. Hendrix. In 1870, William P. Ailsworth was called and officiated one year, followed by J. Belton, who again assumed charge. J. Hurd next became the pastor. In the winter of 1877-'78 Rev. George W. Sweeney and Rev. J. H. Stover held a protracted meeting with this Church, resulting in 125 additions to its membership. Mr. Stover was at once called to the pastorate and assumed charge in April, and has since continued to serve in an acceptable manner. Before the revival meeting was held the Church numbered but about 70. Its present membership is 340. The old church building was torn down and a new edifice erected at a cost of $3,500. The eldership is composed of A. N. Thomas, Nathaniel Frame, Robert Myler, Charles Hartman. The deacons are Henry F. Clipfell, William D. Bulla, Abram Huston, David A. Ireland, James Savidge, Joseph F. Pearson and W. J. Masters.


The Reformed Church of South Bend, connected with the General Synod of the Reformed Church in America, and organized in 1849 by Rev. David McNiesh, and the brick church on the S. W. corner of Lafayette and .Market streets, was erected that year. The Church continued under the ministry of Revs. P. Beidler, C. A. Evans, W. T. Van Doren and G. H. Treke until 1861, when it ceased an active existence.

It was re-organized March 31,1870, by Rev. W. J. Skillman. A commodious frame chapel was built on the N. W. corner of Lafayette and Sample streets, in 1873, in which a mission Sunday-school is held each Sabbath at 3 p. m. In the church building which has been remodeled and a lecture room added in 1880, preaching services are held each Sabbath morning and evening, and Sunday school at 9 a. m., besides a week evening prayer service and a young people's meeting. The present pastor, Rev. N. D. Wi1liamson, took charge of the Church July, 1872.


The first church edifice erected by this denomination in South Bend was in 1854, and the second, in 1871. Those who have labored here since the organization of the body are Rev. G. C. Platz, W. Kolb, C. Glaus, W. Ficht, A. B. Shaeffer, George Messner, H. Welty, C. Augenstein, S. Dickover, B. Uphaus, J. J. Esher, S. Wolf, F. Weithaup, Mr. Ragatz, J. Fisher, B. Ruh, J. Keiper, W. W. Steffey, H. Strickler, P. Goetz, G. Eckhart, J. Fuchs, A. Nicolai, E. L. Kiplinger, C. Kohlmeyer, R. Reigel, M. Hoeher, M. Speck, W. Bockman, C. Ude, J. M. Gomer, JE. Evans, P. Roth, C. Ade, J. Kaufman, G. A. Hartel, M. Krueger, C. Heim, B. Hoffman, J. Berger, S. Kiplinger, J. K. Troyer, D. S. Oakes. In September, 1876, the Church decided to tear the old building down and erect a larger church edifice. A building was accordingly erected 42x68 feet, with two towers in front. This was dedicated Dec. 10, 1876.


This charge was organized in 1869, with 137 members and 16 probationers, resulting from the missionary labors of Rev. T. O. Hackney. Rev. William R. Nickels was appointed pastor Sept. 13, 1869, and served two years. During his ministration the church edifice and parsonage were built. Rev. Clark Skinner was the next appointed and served one year. Rev. John H. Cissell was appointed September, 1872, and served three years. Rev. J. L. Boyd was appointed to succeed Mr. Cissell.


This religious body is well represented and has a neat and commodious house of worship on the corner of Washington and Lafayette streets, erected in 1866, and dedicated April 3, of that year, Rev. T. H. Nixon preaching the sermon on that occasion. The audience room is 80x45 feet, and the entire length of the building 95 feet. The height of the tower and spire is 145 feet. Rev. George T. Keller is the present pastor.


The Roman Catholics are represented by three churches- St. Joseph's, fourth ward, Rev. Father Venniard, pastor; St. Patrick's, Division street, near Chapin, Rev. P. Lauth, pastor; St. Joseph's (Polish), Monroe street, near Chapin, Rev. V. Czyzewski, pastor. The African Methodist Episcopal, Monroe street, near Lafayette, Rev. J. W. Harper, pastor. Baptist, southeast corner Jefferson and Main streets, Rev. T. E. Egbert, pastor. Episcopal, Lafayette, near Jefferson, Rev. Walter Scott, Rector. German Methodist Episcopal, Division street, near Lafayette, Rev. William Keller, pastor. Second Presbyterian, corner Market and St. Peter streets. Reformed Mission, corner Lafayette and Sample streets. St. Peter's Evangelical, corner Water and Michigan avenue, Rev. Philip Wagner, pastor. St. Paul's Lutheran, corner William and Jefferson streets, Rev. Henry Stock, pastor.


The Masonic order is well represented here with three lodges, one chapter, and one commandery, together with an Eastern Star Lodge for ladies.

St. Joseph Lodge, No. 45, was instituted by charter in 1842, having worked two years previous under dispensation. The lodge has always been in a flourishing condition, and meets the first Monday in each month, at its hall in Lincoln Block, 118 Michigan street. The present officers are John E. Kelley, W. M.; John W. Harbon, S. W.; John McBain, J. W.; Jasper E. Lewis, Sec.; Ed. Nicar, Treas.; John M. Smith, S. D.; Frank Stimson, J. D.; Geo. H. Alward, Tyler.

South Bend Lodge, No. 294, was instituted in 1863. It has regular meetings the first Friday in each month. Its present officers are Herbert S. Fassett, W. M.; Henry C. Knill, S. W.; Lewis T. Van Nest, J. W.; C. Sanders, Sec.; J. A. Barnhart, Treas.; O. H. Palmer, S. D.; Charles J. Smith, J. D.; George Macomber, Tyler.

Germania Lodge, No. 301, was instituted in 1862, and conducts the services in the German language. It has its regular meetings the first Thursday in each month. The present officers are John Klingel, W. M.; C. Iverson, S. W.; John Steffens,J. W.; William Stacker, Sec.; John Kleindinst, Treasurer.

South Bend Chapter, No. 29, was instituted in 1855, and holds regular meetings the second Monday in each month. Its present officers are Elmer Crockett, H. P. Chauncey N. Lawton, K.; James E. Mills, S.; George H. Alward, Treas.; C. Sanders, Sec.; Herbert S. Fassett, C. of H.; W. H. Saunders, P. S.

South Bend Commandery, No. 13, was instituted in 1866. It has regular meetings in their Asylum, at Masonic Hall, the first Tuesday in each month. Its officers are W. A. Foote, E. C.; Edwin Nicar, Gen.; C. G. Conn, Capt. Gen.; J. H. Nevius, Prelate; Samuel T. Applegate, Treas.; James E. Mills, Recorder; William S. Saunders, S. W.; Henry Speth, J. W.; John Graveson, Sd. B.; F. M. Jackson, Sw. B.; A. N. Knapp, W.; George Macomber, Sentinel.

Eastern Star Lodge, No. 2, was instituted in 1871, and has regular meetings on the fourth Wednesday in each month. Its present officers are J. H. Nevius, W. P.; Mrs. C. N. Lawton, W. M.; Mrs. C. H. Underwood, A. M.; Mrs. Helen Macomber, Sec.


Two lodges and one encampment are represented by this order in South Bend.
South Bend Lodge, No. 29, was the first lodge of the order instituted here, its charter dating back to 1846. It now holds regular meetings in Odd Fellows Hall, every Wednesday evening. Its officers for the present term are George Ford, N. G.; Jesse W. Jennings, Jr., V. G.; Elias W. Hoover, Treas.; F. G. Brown, Rec. Sec.; D. A. Newton, P. S.

Robert Blum Lodge, No. 278, was instituted in 1867, and has regular meetings every Thursday evening at 112 Michigan street. Its present officers are .John Rupp, N. G.; Gustav Ronaski, V. G.; Godfrey Poehlman, Treas.; Chris Neidman, R. S.; John Haslenger, P. S.

South Bend Encampment, No.9, was instituted in 1867. It holds its regular meetings the first and third Friday evenings of each month, at its hall, 74 Washington street. Its present officers are D. A. Newton, C. P.; Daniel Dayton, H. P.; Alfred Hall, Scribe; C. W. Martin, Treas.; Charles Kimball, S. W.;. G. W. Sumption, .J. W.

The order owns a large and fine hall, underneath which are two store rooms and a number of offices, which yield a good revenue.


Crusade Lodge, No. 14, is the only representative of this order, and holds its regular meeting every Tuesday evening in Homer Block. Its present officers are L. A. Hull, P. C. ; John Steele, C. C.; James L. Mack, V. C.; J. C. Neville, P.; J. N. Carver, M. at A.; R. Freund, K of R. and S.; W. H. Longley, M. of E.; E. B. Morey, M. of F.; Martin Ranbuhler, L. G.; John Pool, O. G.


The Independent Order of Good Templars is represented by Guiding Star Lodge, No. 371, which was chartered in 1866. Its officers are H. A. Weston, W. C. T.; Mrs. Eliza Hain, W. V. T.; A. N. Weston, W. R. S.; Fred White, W. F. S.; George Frink, Treas.; Eddie Spencer, W. M.; Mrs. Emma Quick, W. I. G.; Lewis Webster, W. O. G.


South Bend Turn- Verein meets at Turner Hall the first and third Tuesdays in each month. George Rockstroh, Pres.; George K. Meyer, Vice-Pres; Jacob P. Futter, Sec.

South Bend Maennerchor meet in their hall near the comer of Water and Sycamore streets, east side, the first Monday in each month. Henry Schaal, Pres.; William Schermann, Vice-Pres.; Robert Seifert, Sec.


This body meet at hall corner Washington and Michigan streets.

Its present officers are Edwin Nicar, Post Com.; John Worley, Sr., V. C.; William Dodd, V. C.; Herman Culver, Chap.; George W. Loughman, W. E. Gorsuch, Q. M.; Dr. Daniel Dayton, Surgeon; A. T. Putnam, Officer of the Day; John Steele, Officer of the Guard; John J. Mayer, St. Major; Joseph Turnock, Q. M. Sergeant.


This club was organized in 1867 with seven members: hence its name. The membership was afterward largely increased, some of the most talented young gentlemen and ladies in the city becoming identified with it. The society was social in its nature, meeting at the private residences of one of their number and passing the time in social conversation, reading essays, and in music, both vocal and instrumental, declamations, recitations and orations. Sometime during the holidays of each year an entertainment was given to which special invitations were extended to those they were desirous of having present. As an illustration the following programme of their annual entertainment is given:
Opening Chorus Club
Address J. R. Foster
Tableau -" Statuary" Club
Duet,-(Flute and Piano,) " Potpourri" from Norma T. M. Hill, Flo. Turner
Song,-" Sweet Molly Matilda Jane," May Turner
Tableau,-" King James' Submission to Richard I," Club
Duett,-(Vocal) "Larboard Watch," T. M. Hill, H. G. Van Tuyl
Duett,-(Instrumental,) "Warblings at Eve," Minnie Dayton, Ada1ie Hartman
Club Paper,-" Constellation," H. G. Van Tuyl
Duett,-(Flute and Piano,) "Sounds from Home," T. M. Hill, Flo. Turner
Song,-"'We'll have to Mortgage the Farm," Club


Fred Maywood E. Blodgett
Mr. Maywood. W. A. Bugbee
Mrs. Cowslip Flo. Turner.
Cora Neville May Turner Quartette,-(Vocal,) "Hail us ye Free," T. M. Hill, H. G. Van Tuyl, Flo Turner, May Turner.


This club was organized in 1874, composed of ladies entirely, and devoted to the systematic study of art, literature, science and history. It has now about 20 members and is in a flourishing condition, meeting weekly. The ladies own a choice library, which is soon to be thrown open to the general public. The club is exerting a great influence upon society and awakening a strong interest in the general and generous culture of the mind.


The first hotel opened in South Bend was that kept by Peter Johnson in 1831. Others were soon after opened, and the place has never lacked accommodations for the traveling public. At present there are three hotels that are first-class in their appointments, depending upon the traveling public for their support. These are the Oliver House, situated on the corner of Main and Washington streets, and under the management of Knight Brothers. This hotel was opened in 1879. The Grand Central, situated on Michigan street, Frank Knill, proprietor. The St. James, near the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad depot. Besides these are the Kuntsman House, Dwight House, South Bend House and Union House, all of which are patronized more by regular boarders than the traveling public.


South Bend has two-large public halls suitable for concerts, theatrical performances and other purposes: Good's Opera House, Washington street, opposite the Court House; and Price's Theatre, Michigan street.

History of St. Joseph County, Indiana
Chas. C. Chapman & Co.
Chicago, 1880

Deb Murray