and top of which flowed small springs of water – whether hot or cold we did not know. Later found they are called chocolate cones.|
After a while we came to some hot springs – literally dozens and dozens of them. And among these were two geysers – the Minute Man, which plays from every two to five minutes, and the duration of the eruption of which is from one to three minutes. The other geyser is called Monarch, and at times has long periods of inaction. However, it has been playing quite regularly lately and we were fortunate enough to see it in eruption. It shot up perhaps thirty or thirty-five feet into the air. The stream of water was almost as wide as it was high and was very muddy. Then we came farther on until we passed a basin that was covered with springs and geysers. Page 30 -- Minnie, son, and I followed a board walk and went into the basin. The first thing we came to was a steam vent. The escape of the steam was accompanied by a terrible roar. It was called the Black Growler. Indeed, there were two of these, the second, unnamed, was really louder than the first.
In many places the sign-boards were either down or the names worn off so often we did not know their names. One, a geyser we judged to be the Constant. Also there was a Beryl colored spring, an opal colored spring, and an emerald spring. There were hundreds of springs in the basin. Then we passed the Norris Lunch Station, and came to the Norris Militia Station where Henry registered. We came on about two miles and are now camped for the night near some hot springs called the Frying Pan.
I almost tire of telling of the hot springs for they are everywhere – hundreds – even thousands of them.
This evening we took some breakfast food and some beans and prepared them and then took them down to the hot springs and set them into some of the smaller springs to see if they would cook. Henry has just come back from there again and said the breakfast food is done. I don’t know whether the beans will get done or not. We are going to leave them in over night.
A few minutes ago, when Henry and son were gone to the springs, Minnie and I heard a curious noise, like several geese squawking, so went down the road to see what it was. We could see nothing. But Henry is gone down there now. We’ll see if he finds out what they are. Later – didn’t find out – noise farther on.
A funny thing happened today. When we were in the Norris Geyser Basin, I saw a signboard lying face downward and went over to see what name was on it. It read “Dangerous”! I got away from there.
Aug 17 – On the eleventh we passed the Obsidian Cliff, Appolinaris Spring – a spring with a soda taste, and containing iron, Beaver Lake, Roaring Mountain – a mountain from which steam was escaping with a roar. That night we camped on Obsidian Creek, near a Wylie camp, on a meadow called Willow Park. |
Page 31 -- On the twelfth, we came on to Gardiner. We passed the Golden Gate. The road is built around the side of a mountain, and the lower side is supported by an arcade of concrete. The scenery at this place impressed me very much. The cliff and rocks are of a brownish color – hence the name – Golden Gate, and from this also they get the name of Yellowstone.
Then we went on farther and passed the Silver Gate. This was, to me, no less impressive than the other. Huge boulders of the hot spring formation were lying about everywhere – the stratas or layers of which could be plainly seen. They looked as if an earth quake had, in the past, heaved them up and hurled them in every direction. Indeed, the mountain was, at this place, of the lime formation, perhaps in the remote past it was gigantic geyser, or perhaps a mountain of hot springs.
After a while we came to some more formation and went over to see what it was. It was a terrace, beautifully colored with the water which ran down from it and was called Angel Terrace. Then, seeing several paths leading farther up the hill, we followed one and came to the top. We noticed a sign board which read “Devil’s Kitchen,” but saw nothing that in any way resembled a kitchen. After a while we saw it. It was merely a small slit in the ground – so small that, as we followed the steps that lead downward, and after going for perhaps twenty five feet we came to the bottom. It was perhaps eight feet wide and as much as twenty feet in length, (possibly more) tapering off at both ends and ending in blackness. It was very hot down there and we hastened to get back to light again. Undoubtedly, at some time in the far past it was a hot spring. All the hills around were of the hot spring formation and there were many “dead” terraces. That is, terraces that no longer have water running down their sides. As soon as the water stops running on this formation, it immediately loses its beautiful colors.
Page 32 – From the Devil’s Kitchen we cut across country and went down to see Jupiter terraces. The water from three hot springs forms this terrace. They are marvels of color and beauty. One spring is of an indescribable blue, another green, and the edges of the third are of a coral color. These waters come down over a hill forming the terraces in almost every color. It is the largest of all. I believe as you must know from the name – Jupiter.
Farther down, in the town is “Liberty Cap” an extinct hot spring cone about thirty feet high. Then we saw the Hyman terrace, the most beautiful of all. I will not attempt to describe it tin detail for it was much like Jupiter only much smaller, and had a greater variety of colors. The terraces themselves were more perfectly formed – each terrace a cup of beauty. This terraces was guarded by a soldier.|
This is practically all we saw at the Mammouth Hot Springs. There was no place to camp where there was grass for the horses so we came on, and after five miles more of travel down hill we came to the northern entrance to the park, and Gardiner. But it was our exit. We came thru the arch upon which was inscribed, “For the benefit and enjoyment of the people” was dedicated by President Roosevelt in 1903. We camped “outside the park” that evening.
Minnie leaves us to return home by train. In the morning (the 13th) Minnie boarded the train, and left for Lost Cabin, and her school. That day we also came on. We passed many farms on the river meadows. One dead town which I understood to be called Electris used to be a coal mining camp, went broke on account of high priced and incompetent labor and case is now in the courts. We passed a health resort called Corwin Resort. There are a few hot springs there.
This morning we came twelve or thirteen miles farther. On our way we noticed a sign saying “vegetables” near a ranch house, and went in to get some. The old man had been around Lander years ago and knew some of the people Henry knew. Bed time, must stop for now.
Page 33 – Aug 16 – Last night we camped near a big irrigation ditch and were still near the Yellowstone River, which we had been near ever since leaving Gardiner.
Aug 20 – We came through Bozeman today. On Saturday, the 16th I wrote last. On Sunday the 17th,
11Def: Atrophy of the shoulder muscles due to paralysis of the supra capsular nerve. Cause is usually trauma to the nerve. Recoverable with time.
we passed several “dead” coal mining towns. On the evening of the 17th we stopped overnight in one of the towns. The next day – the 18th – Henry had a severe headache, so we did not go. On the nineteenth we came to within about two miles of Bozeman and today we are about ten miles from that town. Both yesterday and today we passed through some fine farming country. Many fine fields of oats, wheat, etc.|
Coming through Bozeman today, we bought a fifteen pound water-melon for fourty cents, a crate of 78 peaches for ninty cents. Bozeman is quite a large town with I should judge several thousand inhabitants.
It seems to be a very busy place, situated, so it is, in the heart of a farming country. Being in the sheep-wagon, I really could not see much of the town. Toda we came past more fine farms, some of which were planted in peas, presumably for some canning factory; tho there is no pea canning factory in Bozeman.
As we are feeding the horses grain now, we are going to try to go fifteen miles a day hereafter.
Page 34 – I shall be glad when we get to Butte and settled down again. This perpetual moving does not suit me for all time.
Henry is homesick and wants to go back to Lost Cabin, but I think we had better stick it out up here for a while.
If we stay in Butte long enough I am going to study up and get a certificate to teach school. It will help out considerably with the living.
Sept 9 – I haven’t written any in here for quite a long time. After leaving Bozeman we came thru the famous Gallatin Valley. A good deal of winter wheat is grown in that section of the country, and much of the farming is “dry farming” that is farming without irrigating. The land is farmed every alternate year. It seems that the soil cannot produce good crops two years in succession.
have to board at the hotel. (he was to get $3.50 a day, less $1.00 a day for board which would leave $2.50 clear per day. This boarding-at-the-hotel business was a graft, of course).|
When the clerk said “you will have to board at the hotel” Henry said instantly “make her out” (the check – his wages, of course). Then we came back over to the nine mile camp. Henry has decided to go back to Lost Cabin so I suppose we will have to go.
Page 35 – He wrote to Jim, his brother in Omaha, to find out Aunt Hannah’s address so we can visit her before leaving. On the 6th (Saturday) we went to Butte. Son and I took the “Seeing Butte, Observation Car” at 1:30 in the afternoon and got back about 5:30.
Saw the residences of several well known men such as Ryan, Daby, and so forth. We visited some of the mines (but did not go inside), visited the blacksmith shops and smelter. Everything is run by electricity. In the blacksmith shops there were many wonderful things. Four large air compressors in one room, forcing air into the mines. In another room a punching machine that could (and did) punch holes in iron or steel as easily as one can punch a hole thru paper with a pen. It was capable of punching holes in material up to one inch in thickness. Another machine was an enormous cutter, which was called shears. It could cut iron or steel up to two inches in thickness. We saw it work too. Of course neither of these exhibited the extreme of their power to us. They were just ordinary pieces of steel perhaps one sixth of an inch thick. Then there was a hammer run by an expert, and capable of being adjusted so nicely that a cherry seed placed on the anvil underneath it was broken and the “goody” inside was not. Then he crushed some copper slugs for us (there were others, of course) to keep as souvenirs.
In the smeltery we saw the ore being dumped in for melting together with lime and something else (the name of which I did not catch). Going below we saw it coming out in the melted condition, a stream of liquid fire. Then it ran into a tank of water. The copper sank and the waste stayed on top and was run off – another stream of fire – into immense pots. This waste is called slag, and the pots are on wheels which are in turn on rails and when the pots are filled they are run off and dumped. Slag is of no mineral value but makes a good cement.
Page 36 – But, going back to the mineral in the tank, when it sinks, some of the slag goes with it and so it is not yet pure – in fact something like 45% pure, I believe. Then it is run into immense pots and kept at a temperature of 3,000 degrees for three and a half hours, after which time the slag, rising to the top, is run off, and the pure copper remains. From there it
is poured into moulds and allowed to remain until hardened, then taken out and set aside to be shipped.|
Regarding the pots in which the temperature is kept to 3,000 degrees, It is not heated from coal or coke but a kind of pressure. It could not understand all the conductor of the party said, on account of the roaring there.
The deepest mine in Butte is 3025 feet. There are about 70 that are 1,000 feet, several 2,000, and two or three 3,000 or a little more. These mines are all connected, and one can go in at one and go thru all the others without ever coming up to the light. All except one are owned by one company – the Anaconda Mining Company. One of these mines is now on fire. A novel method was resorted to some time ago to keep down the fire. Water did no good and only drownded out the other mines so they lined the passages with concrete – thus smothering the flames somewhat and at the same time making the mine safer.
The fire did not in any way harm the copper, only burned the waste, but of course the mine could not be worked on account of the heat. A few years ago the fire broke forth afresh. Men – hard to get – were paid six to eight dollars a day to work four hours each day. They worked on ten-minute shifts.
There are two mines perhaps a mile apart run by the same machinery, at a great saving of labor and money.
Of course there is a certain amount of water in all the mines. This water was found to contain a large percent of copper – In fact it might be called “copperized” water.
Page 37 – This water is run into reservoirs built of dirt taken from the mine, dirt which contains a small percent of copper. Apparently the “copperized” water gathers the copper from the dirt. Then the water is run into troughs which are filled with old scraps of iron, steel, and tin cans collected from the city’s dump. The “copperized” water runs over this and converts it into that much copper, pound for pound. It averages about 85% pure. Thus the “copperized” water which was formerly waste, is now the source of a big income to the company.
Each of the mines employ from four to six hundred men and produce from eight to fourteen hundred tons of ore per 24 hours. This is not counting the “copperized” water I suppose, which, indeed, is no small thing.
We went out to Columbia Gardens – a park set aside for children – we just passed thru it – saw all kinds of lowers and a peacock, which I showed to son.
It is impossible to tell of everything here. We are going to town again tomorrow. I think I’ll hunt up Cassie Watson while I’m there.|
Sept 19 – The next time we went to town I looked for Cassie, but she was not living where she had been; she may have left town altogether. On Saturday the 13th we went into town again and that time got a card from Jim, Henry’s brother, telling us Aunt Hannah’s address, it was in the very heart of town, at 29 West Broadway.
Oct 6 – On the 14th Sept we left for Wyoming. We came thru Whitehall, Three Forks, Logan, Manhattan and Belgrade. At Belgrade we went to a small circus – Cole Brothers. Came on thru Bozeman. It is a nice town surrounded, as it is, by its fine farms – indeed in the very heart of the great Gallatin Valley. Came on thru Springdale (where there are hot springs and a sort of a summer resort.) – Big Timber and Columbus. From Columbus to Joliet thence to Fromberg. Here we got three boxes of fine apples for a dollar a box. Then came on to Bridger. The next town we passed, Frannie, was in Wyoming. The next towns were Cowley and Lovell, and it was storming. Today (Oct. 6) it has cleared up but the roads were very bad. This has been a great trip. Around Fromberg and Bridger we saw hundreds – yes – thousands of tons of sugar beets piled up in great heaps – ready for shipment. Around there also were many orchards – many large ones – some small, and not a few young orchards. And in the northern part of Wyoming – around Crowley - (a Mormon settlement) and Lovell, apple trees and sugar beets
are abundant. Bee raising is also a profitable business. It is estimated that 90,000 pounds of honey will be shipped from Lovell this fall.|
We have had interesting experiences too. One day when we halted near Rock Creek to feed the horses we found already there an outfit of Scotch beggars or gypsies.
Page 39 -- But for the most part our trip has in one respect been disagreeable – it has been lonely. More so for me than Henry, because I, being a woman cannot talk to people as he can.
I suppose that we will have but little left when we get back to Lost Cabin – that is, in the line of household goods. Most of them were given away, and I don’t want them again. The sheep wagon will do us until we can afford to get more and then I want good things. Time to go to bed.
June 27 1914 – It has been a long time since I wrote in here. About this time last year we were getting ready to leave. Now, Henry is getting ready to freight wool. We are living on Alkali Creek again in our little two roomed shack.
April 20 (1915) – We got the piano from Rothschild & Col, but didn’t like it so very well and their conditions for the piano were too close. Page 40 -- We didn’t like them so we sent it back and got another one from Denver Music Co. It is a Hoffman – a three hundred and seventy dollar piano.
We put new roofing on our two roomed “shack”. Also put new floor in the front room, and blue building paper on the walls and ceiling. We have wall paper for it and will put it on probably this fall or next spring. We got a new heating stove last fall – a tiny one but it certainly does heat up – it is a hot air blast heater. |
Last summer Henry went over to Thermopolis where the oil boom was on. He went with his freight outfit after he finished hauling wool from Carl De Groots shearing pens. He said there were so many other teams over there that he got only two trips with his outfit but made about a hundred and fifty dollars. Then he took the outfit and hauled logs from the mountains for Will Lewis – made over a hundred out of that.
He went over to Meeteetse to work for Scotty MacLee who has sheep again, stayed about six or seven weeks, got homesick and came home.
Then he went over to Moneta to se if he could get work over there. Got work in the store at eighty per month and went back home to get me. I didn’t know I was coming over until the day before we came.
Page 41 – He took our chickens down to his brother Al’s who live at Lysite. I had some incubator chickens which I had hatched out. They all died except nine – I brought them along. I had the incubator set again with 148 eggs. Before leaving we tested them out and there were 103 which we thought were fertile. We took them out of the incubator and wrapped each of the eggs in paper, put them in pails – covered them up well, and took them, the incubator, and the old chickens down to Al’s – two miles away. Al said that not all of them were fertile as we thought, they hatched fifty-five – probably as many as would have hatched if they had not been moved.
We came over here the 4th, Easter Sunday. We are living here in the sheep wagon. On the following Wednesday (7th) the waitress at the hotel, Mrs. Quinn by name, and the depot agent’s wife, Mrs. Daugaard came to me and said, “There are two prostitutes over in the “white house” (the house of ill fame) they came here about five months ago, drunk, and have been drunk ever since. One of them is sick and has been sick for about three weeks. She needs care. The other one is drunk and not able to care for her. Will you come and go over there with us and see what we can do?” I said “Yes”; of course. We went, and Henry and Pete Clark went with us. The sick girl, Dorothy, certainly needed care. We did what we could for her and a doctor was sent for.
Next morning Mrs. Quinn and I went over again. By daylight it was worse looking than it had seemed the night before and it had made me sick the
night before. Page 42 -- Beer and whiskey bottles were scattered about every place. Cigarette stubbs, burnt matches, dirt and ashes strewed the floor. It was especially bad in the sick girl’s room. The odor of whiskey and tobacco smoke made me sick, but I managed to stay and do what I could do to help. Moreover, the drunken prostitute, Della by name, used the most horrible and profane language imaginable. |
Dr. Tonkin [Dr. Tonkin is now health officer for this county (Lysite County, Wyoming);I have since met him again. A fine man. Dec 4, 1931. Later, in 1934 I think it was Dr. Tonkin died. I believe it was in Jan or Feb 1934.] of Riverton came out. He decided to take Dorothy to the hotel where she would get better care. When he told Mrs. Quinn and I of this decision, Della was with us in the sick room, she cussed. What more can I say. It was horrible. Just then I thought her, in very truth, a daughter of the Devil, or perhaps the Devil himself in woman’s form.
This town is not incorporated, they were running that house, and selling liquor there without a license. The doctor her of this and told her that moreover he would report her if she didn’t “shut up.” We took her to the hotel.
On the 14th – a little less than a week after, she died. Before she died they sent for a priest. It seems that she had been a Catholic. Her name was Elizabeth Swartz of Duluth.
Apr 26 – Another death a few days ago. Frank L. Johnson, brother of Mrs. Courtney Nichols was brought here almost dead. (Illegible) was sent down to Casper where he died in a day or so.
Must get my lunch dishes washed.|
But I must not forget to mention the most important event in the history of the world. War broke out in Europe last August (first). Russia, France, England, and Japan, Belgium and Servia are allied against Germany and Austria Hungary.
A Servian assassinated the heir to the Austo-Hungarian throne; Austria held that the Servian government had tolerated and even allowed it to happen. Austria sent an ultimatum to Servia. The conditions were that she, Servia, “must accept the collaboration in Servia of representatives of the Austro-Hungarian government in the suppression of the subversive movement directed against the territorial integrity of the Monarchy,” and that within fourty-eight hours. Page 44 – Servia at once appealed to the Russian government who had long stood as guardian against aggressive powers threatening the Balkan States. Austria-Hungary declared war on Servia and began bombarding Belgrade.
Then Russian began mobilizing her army to help Servia. Germany told her to stop, as she (Germany) had a treaty with Austria. She declared war against France because France’s attitude was against, rather than for her. German troops made a dash across Belgium (who was a neutral country) to get to France, intending to take Paris. The Belgiums called upon England to help her, (there was a treaty between them to that effect) and offered resistance to Germany for violating the neutrality. Germany never got to Paris. But they won many battles at first. Then England began to get her armies together and now Germany is, it seems, losing her foothold.
In time, of course, the allies will win. Germany cannot fight and conquer the world, tho undoubtedly she is a powerful nation.
The United States in neutral. She is “on a fence”, so to speak, the European war dogs on one side, and the Mexican war dogs on the other, each trying to drag her into one of the fights. Some of our troops are in Texas now. We may have to whip Mexico yet. My cousin Hugh Swaim with the 18th Infantry, Company M is down in Texas now.
There have been thousands, even millions killed in the European war. Lord Kitchner, at the head of the war department in England says he is prepared for a three year war. Page 45 -- However, we are hoping it will not last so long as that.
It is the Emperor William’s ambition to conquer the world. If he whips the allies he will be over here next. So I sincerely hope that he does not will.
June 11 – A couple or three weeks ago the “Lusitania” steamship was blown up by Germany,
and it is not at all unlikely that it may cause war between that country and the United States.|
This is how it happened: Germany declared a blockade on the seas. The Lusitania was to sail to England carrying ammunition, and war equipment. Germany warned them that if the boat sailed, she did so at her own peril. The Cunard company (the company owning the Lusitania) assured the passengers that it was quite safe to take passage. Among those on board was Alfred Vanderbilt, and Elbert Hubbard and wife. The ship was blown up in the Irish Sea. The Lusitania could have escaped had she not felt so certain that there was no danger, for she could go several knots an hour faster than the submarines. But she slowed up and “got it”. The worst of it was that the Germans, after sinking her, refused to help the passengers and left them to drown, which many of them did, among them the Hubbards and Vanderbilts.
The President believed that that Germany would be willing to pay for the loss but Germany sent back an unsatisfactory answer and declared that the Lusitania was armed and should therefore be considered a war vessel. Page 46 – The President investigated, and I first read where he said that the Lusitania was not armed except for as steamships are allowed to be armed. Another message was sent to Germany. President Wilson’s attitude was more antagonistic than Secretary of State Wm. J. Bryan. Bryan, however induced the President to word the message, so the papers say, amounted to an ultimatum. The contents of it are unknown to any except the cabinet officers and the President. But, going back to the sinking of the Lusitania. It was unfair for Germany to declare a blockade on the seas. Simply because a part of the world is at war is no reason why the rest of the world should be tied up in business. 9-4-1935 I believe differently now. We were “egging” on the war by selling ammunition; we should either have refrained from selling ammunition – or else we should at that time, have entered the war. The munition makers waxed rich at the expense of human lives. And yet the Cunard Line had no business sending a boat over there into the war zone if they didn’t want trouble. So there it is. I only hope and pray that this nation will not be plunged into that awful war. The crimes committed upon the women, the suffering caused by shell and by disease are horrible. 9-4-1935 “The crimes committed upon the women.” Both Germany and the allies told this tale to their people to arouse their “patriotism” and hat. It has since been found to be untrue.
Evening – We first had a hail storm that certainly made a record for itself. The hailstones were a good
inch in diameter – some of them may have been a little more. They were by far, the largest I ever saw.|
Sept 7 – Wilson’s protest has at last brought results; but not until another ship or two were blown up. The last was an out going passenger and mail boat from Liverpool coming to America. Page 47 -- The passengers were given a few, a very few, minutes in which to get into the life boats and they could not all be saved – possibly.
about a mile above Lysite which meant a loss of about $60,000 to the railroad. (Ink blot – I’ve got a “bum pen”) We were not here at the time but Effie told us that that wreck need not have happened if they had fixed the creek (Badwater) when it first began to wash out around the bridge – and cave off. But they did not and it didn’t take long for it to go.|
There have been terrible floods in Kansas and elsewhere. There have been two heavy frosts in the east that have killed or rather spoiled the corn and also the fruit. People are predicting another hard winter such as we had in 1909-10. I hope not.
Henry Jr. started school yesterday. His first day! It seems strange to think of my little boy going to school.
He walked from our shack on Alkali. We came down with the sheep wagon yesterday afternoon and are in Lysite now. We are on a deal now with Ben Cunningham to buy the store and barn but he is likely to back out. Page 49—I think he regrets that he has made the deal. We paid him $300.00 down and are only waiting to get my acceptance as postmistress here and the deal will be closed. I certainly hope he will go through with it as we had a chance to buy some fine ewe lambs for $5.00 per head and we told the owner not to save them for us as we were on the present deal. He can get more than $5.00 net right now on the Omaha market. And if we don’t go thru with this deal we will be losing money.
Glenn and Minnie are both here in Lysite Will has gone in with Floyd on some sheep and they are each helping the other to put up a house. Minnie’s house is log and Glenn’s is board-double boarded up and gumbo dirt between it packs like cement. Built much the same as our shack only ours has building paper between also.
Today is Howard Lewis’ birthday – he is six years old.
Sept 18 – We have sold the sheep wagon. Got a chance to sell it and thought we had better do it. Got $150.00 for it. We are going to live in Floyd’s sheep wagon until we get the business fixed up.
Feb 3 Thursday 1916 – There is to be a total eclipse of the sun. It is now about 9.00 a.m. and it has started. It was to begin at 8.00 am and last until 11.00 am. I got out a pair of smoked glasses and looked at the sun and found that the eclipse – or shadow has begun in the lower right and side. I will write later.
Aug. 8 1916 – Page 50 – The Allies – England, France and Russia, are winning steadily now, and it is almost certain that they will win.|
A great battle is raging just now, in which many thousands have been killed, and many of them are unburied. I fear that this condition will cause a great deal of sickness.
This has been a most remarkable summer –intense heat, and little rain. Infantile paralysis has killed and crippled many thousands of young children and babies in New York.
The crops in this part of the country are almost a failure. The first crop of Alfalfa was frosted in the spring, and the next crop did not have enough water. The rain is coming enough now, when it is too late to help the feed on the range, although I presume it will be of much value to the ranchers.
I am running the store, and post office alone, as Henry has bought half interest in the pool hall here.
We still have the livery barn, and have a boy to take care of it – Raymond Delaney. He also helps me in the store when I am rushed.
I have a hired girl in the house to keep house for us and take care of the baby.
Didn’t I mention that we have a baby? We have. We got her the 26th of last April and she is over a year old now, but is very very small – doesn’t weigh 13 pounds. Her birthday is the 21st of July. She is the daughter of W.H. Hall, whose wife died and left two little children – a boy about two years old, and the baby girl.
Page 51 -- Mr. Hall says we can adopt her and we intend to do so. It is impossible for both Henry and me to get away at the same time now, with all this business, so I fear we shall be compelled to wait for a year or so before adopting her.
Son is a big boy now – he went to school last winter, and will be in second grade this winter.
Sept 9—We had the preliminary election the latter part of August, and I voted. Moreover, I am going to vote at the “real” election, when it comes, and for President Wilson, too.
Feb 9 1917 – I voted for Wilson and Wilson was elected by a small majority. Hughes was against him and carried the states and cities that are usually considered the deciding states, but Wilson carried the vote.
diplomatic relations with Germany, and sent Bernstoff, the German counsel, home. Then Germany refused to let our counsel Gerard (or Herard, I don’t know which) come home, until they knew that Bernstoff was safe in port. All other Americans over there are held as prisoners. These two factors, the Germans trying to tell the world what to do, and Germany holding our counsel as prisoner is stirring up considerable feeling. The papers state that war seems unavoidable.|
June 5, 1917 – Tuesday, today, I feel very sad at heart, almost ready to cry – for this is the day on which the registration for conscription for the army is being held. Page 52 –Some of the country’s finest young men (between the ages of 21 and 31) are sure to be taken. Among those registering here today are Gilbert Woolf, Walker Willoughby, Floyd Logan, James Renwick, Ben Johnson, Monroe Johnson and many others, more than I can name.
Sept 18, 1917 – It has been quite a while since I wrote in here. 2nd July we let the baby go, as I simply could not look after her and do my work in the store and post office.
went back to the hotel – (The Yates City Hotel). We got a room with a bath for the two of us for $2.00.|
The next morning we came on the CB & T Railroad. When we got on the coach it was so crowded that I could find only one seat. I had to sit with my feet on my suitcase and bundles, and hold son on my lap. We had five hours of train riding ahead of us and I decided that it was not worth while to have so much discomfort if it could be helped, so I got a seat on a Pullman – (The Yellowstone) and we rode comfortably the rest of the way.
As I said before, Pearl and Richard were at Whitman to meet us, and we came right on out to their “kinkade”12 ranch. They have all kinds of vegetables – a fine garden – a big patch of watermelons – cantaloupes, roasting ears, tomatoes, and every thing that can be grown here, besides cream, milk, butter and eggs, all of which are at a premium just now on account of the war.
Page 54 -- The first of our troops have landed in France, but they say that they will not be put into the trenches before the first of January, 1918.
Cousin Hugh Swaim who is in the army became a sharpshooter and is now a corporal. He expects to start for France any time.
None of the boys from Fremont County, Wyoming will have to go on the first draft call, as Fremont County supplied so many enlisted men that the proportion of her men had already joined before the drafting came.
Floyd Logan, Minnie’s husband found his name among those drawn, but he will not have to go until next call.
Henry is past thirty-six, so he was not included in the first draft. I am going to start for Omaha the day after tomorrow – 20th. I want to see the Aksarben.
Henry will come down if he can get away in time to see the Aksarben too. He will come on a stock train, and will get a pass back home. Pearl has six children. They have all grown so I hardly knew them. Hugh is 17 years old, Charles 15, Jeannette 12, Richard 10, Pearl (Jr.?) 18 and Billy is 3. Pearl herself is 35. She is not very strong now. They have 38 head of cattle and about a dozen horses and are doing well. Hugh, Charles, and Jack each have a third interest in the outfit, and in a few years they will have a start. Pearl has several head of cattle of her own. (Supposedly the boys had a share in the Kinkaid (ranch) but in the end the two boys got nothing.)
12 Kinkade Act – a land program. In 1904 the Kinkade Act increased the acreage allowed to an individual, generally for lands that were suited to ranching rather than farming. In Nebraska that means the Sand Hills region.
Nov. 23 – Page 55 – I meant to write when I was in Omaha, but I was so busy getting my eyes tested for reading glasses, getting my teeth fixed, going to theatres, etc., that I didn’t seem to get around to it. We went to the Library one day with Lottie, Jim’s wife. One or two rooms were filled with paintings, one room with Egyptian Curios – scharabs, ornaments, etc, and one room with Indian relics.|
Among those, also was an Egyptian mummy three or four thousand years old. The rest of the room was filled with Indian objects of historical interest as well as curios. The bird room was being remodeled and we did not get to see it. And there was a private collection which we did not get to see.
With Lottie, too, we went to the Iten Biscuit Co.13. We were first conducted by stairway to the top of the building where the dough for crackers and cookies stood in what looked like iron bath-tubs. They were then placed in the machinery which rolled and cut it into form. Some of these machines also had icing in a receptacle which automatically iced the cookies. A man stood in place and shoved squares of tins in where the cookies would be upon them and they were from there placed in the oven. The oven was very large and seemed have revolving ovens – on the order of a ferris wheel. The crackers were put in on one tray and then it turned around until the next tray filled with baked crackers came, which were taken out and replaced by uncooked ones. When they had made the revolution they were done and were taken out and were replaced by more.
Page 56 – On the next floor lower – were girls working at a revolving elevator. They came down filled with trays of cookies that were iced by hand – some of them having two different coats of “goodie” on them.
On the floor where they were being taken out of the revolving elevator they were also wrapped in boxes ready for shipping.
Then we went to the stock yards one day –in South Omaha. It was the next day after Henry came, on the second of October, I think. We have stock yards out here, but none to compare with those for size. They were roofed, and were very hot and dusty.
Then we went with Lottie Thru the U.P (Union Pacific Railroad) shops. Since the war, visitors are not allowed, and it was only by getting a permit that we could go thru. Lottie’s brother Charley Edmondson, who is a timekeeper in one of the buildings got he permit and took us thru. The first one we went into provided the heat for all the rest of them. In one of the buildings engines were repaired,
13Originally a family owned baking company run by Bavarian emigrants. It later merged with National Biscuit Co.
and there were large cranes for this purpose, which picked up the engines and deposited them wherever desired. In one room car chairs, etc. were varnished – in another part cars themselves were being painted, varnished and repaired. We saw pairs of wheels being put together at a very great pressure.|
Page 57 -- In other parts we saw machinery of the same kind we saw in Butte, the hammers, punches, shears etc – only everything was on a larger scale.
One room was a lumber room – a regular saw mill. We saw Lottie’s father there – works in an office.
Will Johnson, Henry’s youngest brother works there, but we didn’t get to see him, as we did not know in which building he was working. It was in the same shop where Will is that Jim was hurt, I think.
Omaha claims inhabitants. It was voted dry last fall at election day, and they sell no more intoxicating drinks there now; Chat is, they are not supposed to do so, but they do, as Council Bluffs is not far and it is in Iowa (which is “wet”) and they can get all they want and “bootleg” it out. They have a big graft on it tho – sell it for $4.00 a quart.
We returned from Omaha on the 21st of October. We had “taken in” all of the good shows at the Orpheum, Boyd, and Gayety theatres.
When we got back out home we intended to build us a house, but found several buildings being built and none of them were any where near completion. Carpenters are hard to get, so we decided to wait until spring. We bought a library table, a leather rocker, small mahogany rocker and some chairs in Omaha. The little rocker was broken when it got here, but I think it can be fixed. The railroads have more work than they can handle on account of the war, and no one gets good service. Some of the employees have gone to the war, and with the increased work as a result of the war, they are having a hard time handling it.
Page 58 – My cousin Ora Snyder’s eldest son has joined the army and when last we heard of him, he was in Charlotte, North Carolina. Mama’s and Papa’s parents came from near there.
I have been thinking for some time of copying the Swaim Genealogy for the benefit of those who come after me. Here it is:
In 1638 three brothers of the name of Swaim came over with a colony of Swedes and Finns and settled in Delaware and New Jersey. From this trio all the Swaims in the United States are descended. They soon spread over the line into Pennsylvania. About 1720 one of these named John migrated from Penn’s land to North Carolina where he reared four sons, namely, Moses, William, John, and Michael.14
Of this first family of Swaim’s who were born in the old North State, John, was born about 1745, and was married bout 1767 to Miss Elizabeth Vicory, on Deep River, Randolph County, N.C. This couple were the parents of eleven children:
Christopher, who lived two years under the reign of King George of England 15 married Miss Sallie Hines in 1795.
14Love’s copying of this document does not match the original. The wording of that first paragraph is actually, “There were three brother, by the name of Swaim in the colony of Sweeds and Finns, who settled Delaware and New Jersey in 1638.” In Love’s version the men are Swedes and Finns, in the Crum version, they settled in the land of Swedes and Finns, but were not necessarily Swedes and Finns themselves. This transcriber of Love’s diary holds a Xerox copy of the Crum version. In 2004, the original is held by Charles S. Lewis (Love’s nephew) of Tucson, Arizona.
15This fact about his birth is stated on Christopher’s headstone.
Second marriage of Christopher –|
Lovina Stack (of Irish? Blood) Her father came from Ireland) was born Nov. 22, 1829.
Of Christopher’s first marriage, John, who married Elizabeth Swindle was the father of several children. He deserted his wife and married (?) again without taking the trouble to get a divorce. He had a family by this woman, and at his death there was considerable controversy over his property which seems to have amounted to several hundred thousand dollars.
Bertha was married to Thos Hartley by whom she had two children, the first died young, and the second, named Vitelia Pearl, married A. J. Crossley in the fall Sept 28, 1899.|
(Thos Hartley dies. Berthena marries my father. Pearl Born Jan 2, 1883; Bertha and Charles married Dec. 4, 1886). When Pearl was about five years ole her father died and when she was six years old, Bertha married again, this time to a relative. Their grandfather Old John Swaim being a half brother to her husband’s father.
To Bertha and Charles were born five children:
Lovina Rosalie, myself, was married Feb 1, 1907 to Henry E. Johnson. We have had one child, Henry E. Jr. Born May 4, 1909.
16 See transcriber’s previous footnote about Love’s miswriting of the document. Her writing leads to an erroneous conclusion about the family background.
ancestors were of the pioneer type, always coming to the new land.)|
Wyoming, when we came here was not dangerous on account of the Indians, as they were pretty well settled by that time. However, the trouble between the cattle men and sheep men was, I think, at its worst, there being several sheep men killed and their flocks scattered and driven over precipices, among the most notable was the Minnick killing.
I do not think it has been more than ten or eleven years since a noted killing took place in the Bighorn Basin, below Nowood, some distance, in which the cattle men rode up to the sheep wagon and shot the occupants and burnt the wagon. Most of them, the murderers were caught and some sentenced to a term in the penitentiary.17
But – I meant to write as much of the Johnson record as I can find out.
It must have been in 185- that Christ. Jensen came to America with his parents from Denmark. They were brought over by the Mormons but Crist did not stay with the church. He settled in Omaha and married Nora a Norwegian girl. They had a number of children.
The family name is Jensen. Christ Jensen being a Dane. When he settled in Omaha he got his mail mixed with another man of the same name, so he decided to call himself Johnson, instead. Page 62 -- The name was never legally changed and their name is really Jensen. 18
17This story is told in novel format by Jack Gage in Tensleep and No Rest. 18Love seems confused on this point. She has margin notes indicating that the name was changed legally and a later note, dated Sept. 10, 1942, that the name was never legally changed.
and a great liking for handling money – for feeling of it. |
My mother, Bertha Swaim, died July 8, 1903. Minnie Swaim Logan died June 16, 1925 in the afternoon.
One June 8, 1918 the United States is to be visited by a total eclipse of the sun. Saw it in the Denver Post.
Dec. 12, 1917 – I have been sitting here, thinking, today, and I feel so full of my thoughts that I must write them down. When I was born, I was named for my grandmother, who before her marriage to Moses Swaim (my grandfather) was Lovina Stack. Her name was shortened down to Love, and her people called her Love.
19 Drummond actually rendered it correctly. In a sermon called “Hiding Moses by Faith” delivered at the Metropolitan Tabernacle, Spurgeon quotes this passage stating that he is altering the wording to “and have not faith.” Lovina may have seen Spurgeon’s sermon, thus causing her error here.
the will of the Father, the same is my brother, my sister, and my mother.”|
Page 64 – I pray earnestly to God “the Father in me”, that I may be worthy of the name of “Love”.
July 27, 1923 On page four I wrote, and am here taking it up again. (From page 4 --) The March of Time goes on. Minnie has two little girls Bertha Ruth, born Sept 22, 1917, and Dorothy Pearl, born March 13, 1921. Glenn has another boy, Charles Swaim born March 27, 1917.
I have had the post office here at Lysite for eight years. I have taken up a newer method for learning Christianity – as taught by Unity School of Christianity (Kansas City) and New Thought, and Divine Science. Have been a vegetarian for over five years. My life has been one of continual progress in spiritual and mental way. “Seek ye first the kingdom of God.” (end of entry on page 4)
(Picking back up at page 64) On July 22 we had a rain which raised the creek Badwater, higher than I have ever seen it before. We have not received any mail since – no trains.
I must tell you that in June I received my certificate from the Unity School for work done on the correspondence course.
Jan 15, 1925 – As I read the papers, books, magazines, various opinions all over the world, denunciation here, championing there, I am constantly reminded of crickets or grasshoppers, or frogs – all over the world, each one lifting his tiny voice, trying to be heard. I myself am one of these crickets, or grasshoppers, or frogs.
no account of evil – (ignoring it as much as possible, and looking for the good) Personal love tries to take the place of God in men’s lives, and fails – when one love’s anyone or anything more than God (justice for all – love for all. Truth, etc) he is preparing himself a reward that he will not like to receive.|
May 13, 1925 -- “I have to live with myself and so I want to be fit for myself to know. I want to be able, as days go by, always to look myself straight in the eye” I don’t want to stand in the setting sun, and hate myself for the things I’ve done. It’s a big thing, isn’t it – self respect. It is funny – no tragic – what twists personality will take. For instance, I know a girl who “goes too strong” in a worldly way. Smokes, drinks (occasionally) etc. – to attract attention – she wants to be a “character.” She is, but not in a desirable way; going against public opinion, as to morals, etc; Page 66 -- is not worth while, unless it be for a really good, unselfish cause. It loses ones own respect and the respect of others. It puts a bad example before the young and impressionable. “Am I my brother’s keeper?” Yes. Yes, decidedly. For though we, cannot compel right doing, we can do our duty by loving, teaching, and by example.
June 18, 1925 – Page 67 – Minnie died the day before yesterday – the 16th of June. She and Floyd were going to Casper, he to attend to some land business, and she for the trip and to do some shopping. A little way before Natrona, the steering knuckle came loose, the car veered sidewise, ran into the cut bank – up on to it, and fell back over, on top
Diary is continued here